Triggering an implied clause: Insights from tso in Changde dialect
触发隐含语义:以常德方言句末“着”为例

Abstract 摘要

This paper argues that tso in Changde dialect is a sentence final particle and its use may trigger an implied clause. It is observed that tso is only allowed in a suggestive imperative, restricted to co-occurring with the adverb ɕian55 先 ‘first’. Besides, xa 下 or ta 哒 alternately appears in a tso-suffixed sentence. A comparison of tso in Changde dialecct to zhe in Mandarin on the one hand and to tşe55 inLonghui dialect on the other hand shows that tso has similarities to and differences from both. While zhe is an aspectual particle, it may also trigger an implicit meaning in [V+zhe]construction. Although both of tso and tşe55 can be used as sentence final particles to introduce a sequential event implicitly, the use of tso is more constrained than tşe55.

本文以常德方言tso“着”为例,分析得出句末词具有触发暗含意义的功能。它只能用于建议句中,与副词“先”搭配,动量词“下”或语气词“哒”必须交替出现在“着”字句中。通过横纵向对比,指出常德方言tso与北方方言zhe“着”和隆回方言中的tşe55“着”既有不同点,也存在相似处。研究表明:zhetso存在明显的区别,前者为体标记,而后者为句末语气词。但在“V+着”祈使句中,zhe同样能触发引申意义;tsotşe55两者同为句末语气词,都能触发产生接下来事件的引申涵义。但前者的自由度比后者要低,tso只能用在祈使句句末。

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