Volume 45, No 1
Jackson T.-S. Sun 孙天心 Tian Qianzi; 田阡子; Chenhao Chiu 邱振豪
Horpic denotes a cluster of little-explored languages under the Rgyalrongic subgroup of Qiangic in Sino-Tibetan. Upper Donggu, spoken in Rongbrag County of Dkarmdzes Prefecture, is a previously unknown dialect of Central Horpa, a major language within Horpic. Upper Donggu makes a phonemic distinction between modal and slack phonation. This remarkable feature not only contrasts lexical meanings, but also plays a role in verb-stem and other morphological formations. Sorting out the origins of slack phonation in Upper Donggu is still a daunting task, but partial correspondences in vocabulary and inflectional morphology can be established between Upper Donggu slack syllables and syllables in other Central Horpa varieties bearing low tone or voiceless aspirated fricative onsets. This suggests that phonation in Upper Donggu is a conservative feature that provides valuable clues to the origin of contrastive tone and fricative aspiration in Horpic, and also to the internal ramifications of this important Rgyalrongic subgroup.
Rgyalrongic subgroup 嘉戎语组 Horpic cluster 霍尔语群 Phonation type 发声态 Slack voice 弛声 Phonological alternation 音韵交替 Tonogenesis 声调起源
The Suàn Shù Shū contains 301 instances of regular expressions for fractions. They can be “mono-dimensional” (formed with one integer name only) for unit fractions, “bidimensional” (with two integer names) for both unit and non-unit fractions, or lexicalized only for 1/3, 1/2 and 2/3. The present paper gives a complete description of the diversity of these forms. Bidimensional expressions are predicative phrases: the name n fēn of a unit fraction 1/n acts as subject and the numerator’s name as predicate; according to the syntactic context, the morpheme zhī can be used as an optional marker of this predicative relation.
Chinese historical syntax 中文语法历史 Fractions 分数 Numerical expressions 表数短语 Separable semantic units 离合词组 Measure words 量词 Suàn Shù Shū 《算数书》
Huei-Ling Lin 林惠玲
Postverbal secondary predicates (PSP) in Taiwan Southern Min (TSM) are introduced by -kah4, -liau2, or -tioh8, each of which carries a different denotation. This paper argues that the PSPs introduced by each of these three markers can be further divided into three types—resultative, descriptive, and extent. The arguments are based on the scope of modification, the formation of passivization, and word order. Moreover, there exist co-occurrence restrictions between the main verb and the PSPs; achievement and accomplishment compound verbs are incompatible with PSPs. Even though PSPs with different markers behave similarly, they still differ in at least one aspect. PSPs introduced by -kah4 may be deleted, while those introduced by -liau2 or -tioh8 are not optional.
Taiwan Southern Min 台湾闽南语 Postverbal secondary predicate 动后次要谓语 Postverbal marker 动后标志 Resultative 结果 Descriptive Extent 状态程度
In Modern Chinese, shì is found as part of the composition of a set of connectives, e.g. kěshì ‘but,’ yàoshì ‘if.’ The previous research (Dong 2004, etc.) assumes that the development of the set underwent the process of lexicalization (Lehmann 2002): the syntactic strings [Y COP] lost their internal constituency and fused into one unit over time. This paper, however, in the light of Brinton and Traugott’s (2005) criteria for distinguishing lexicalization and grammaticalization, and Traugott and Trousdale’s (2013) hypothesis of constructionalization, argues that the copula shì coalescing with the preceding lexemes and changing into a bound morpheme underwent grammatical constructionalization rather than what Lehmann calls lexicalization. I argue that the process of change involves grammatical constructionalization, based on the analyses of generality/schematicity, productivity and compositionality. I also consider pragmatic inferencing and analogy to be the motivation and reanalysis, analogization and subjectification to be the mechanisms of the process of constructionalization.
在现代汉语中, “是”是一组连接词如“可是”“但是”的组成部分。前人的研究（董秀芳2004等）认为这一系列连词的发展经历了词汇化过程（Lehmann 2002）即结构字符串[Y COP]随着时间推移逐渐失去了他们的内部组合性并融合成一个语素单位。本文采用Brinton and Traugott (2005)区分词汇化和语法化的标准, 以及Traugott and Trousdale (2013)的构式化理论, 论证了系词“是”跟前面的语素Y结合,变成粘着语素经历了语法构式化而非Lehmann所谓的词汇化。本文从图式性，能产性和组合性这三个构式化维度来论证该变化是个语法构式化过程，并指出语用推测和类比是该变化的动因，而重新分析，类比化和主观化则是该变化的机制。
Connectives 连词 Lexicalization 词汇化 Constructionalization 构式化
Jung-Im Chang 张廷任
This paper supports and extends the results of previous studies, such as Pulleyblank (1986) and Chang (2012), that argue that the choice of 于 or 於 in Classical Chinese is not random, but rather is conditioned by the features of the preceding verb. Through a close examination of the co-occurrence of 于 and 於 with the high-frequency verb 至 in six Warring States period texts, it is shown that additional semantic and syntactic factors influence the choice between the two. Semantically speaking, while both 至于 and 至於 occur followed by a noun indicating a place, a time, or a person—all of which can be described as [+concrete] goals—it is only 至於 that occurs followed by a degree, result, or extent, which can be described as [-concrete] goals. The [-concrete] goals that appear as objects of 至於 include a near demonstrative pronoun 此, a noun (including an abstract noun) or noun phrase, a verb phrase, and even a sentence. Syntactically speaking, only “至於+ Noun” appears in nominalized contexts in complex syntactic structures, such as before a nominalizer 者, before or after a relativizer 所, and as a head noun after a possessive/attributive marker 之. These findings provide additional support for the claim that 于 and 於 represent distinct lexical items, with distinct semantic feature sets, in Classical Chinese.
在现代汉语中, “是”是一组连接词如“可是”“但是”的组成部分。前人的研究（董秀芳2004等）认为这一系列连词的发展经历了词汇化过程（Lehmann 2002）即结构字符串[Y COP]随着时间推移逐渐失去了他们的内部组合性并融合成一个语素单位。本文采用Brinton and Traugott (2005)区分词汇化和语法化的标准, 以及Traugott and Trousdale (2013)的构式化理论, 论证了系词“是”跟前面的语素Y结合,变成粘着语素经历了语法构式化而非Lehmann所谓的词汇化。本文从图式性，能产性和组合性这三个构式化维度来论证该变化是个语法构式化过程，并指出语用推测和类比是该变化的动因，而重新分析，类比化和主观化则是该变化的机制。
Zhiyu 至于 Zhiyu 至於 yu于 yu於 Warring States period texts 战国文献
Dispositional sentences in Huangxiao Dialects have three patterns: A) S+ba(把)To+VP+ta/qu（他/渠）, B)To+S+VP+ ta/qu（他/渠）, C)S+VPvi+ ta/qu（他/渠）. They can be formed into imperative sentence, willful declarative sentence and interrogative sentence, emphasizing personal dispositions. They are caused by topic-prominence with a definite prepositional object, and back-reference with ta/qu（他/渠） after VP，forming A and B patterns, which is an intermediate between VO and TV sentence orders. The postpositional ta/qu（他/渠） function as modal particles emphasizing willful dispositions. The extension of Pattern A and Pattern B forms Pattern C. There exist some distributional discrepancy in the three patterns and their variants.
Dispositional sentence 意向处置句 Sentence pattern 句式 Grammatical meaning 语法意义 Formation 构成 Grammaticalization 语法化 Distributional discrepancy 分布差异 Huangxiao dialects 黄孝方言
Hilary M. Chappell
This grammar represents a consummate work by Jeroen Wiedenhof (JW), a scholar who has devoted much of his research career to the study of the Beijing variety of Mandarin Chinese, his familiarity and ease with the subject shining through the pages of his detailed description. Composed of twelve chapters with an enormous tally of useful tables and figures (over 70 in fact), glossaries of terminology and appendices for the different transcription systems of Mandarin and its syllable inventory, this grammar should prove to be invaluable to linguists, sinologists and students alike. One of the many pluses of this book is its use of authentic data from a corpus of colloquial Beijing Mandarin transcriptions, for which the author (JW) does not fail to indicate the precise usage and pronunciation. This is information largely lacking in grammars to date which tend to present the standard or official pronunciation, and typically only in the form of the pīnyīn transcription, adopted by China in 1958. As the author states in his preface, the focus of his grammar is on actual language use, embracing the two perspectives of language variation and change. To this end, JW not only makes comparisons between contemporary Beijing and Taiwan Mandarin speech usage, but also with the description of spoken Mandarin in Chao Yuen Ren’s classic grammar, published 50 years ago, in order to identify diachronic changes that may have occurred. As a consequence of adopting this unswervingly empirical approach, many interesting theoretical considerations are raised in the course of the twelve chapters that have not necessarily been tackled in other grammars such as Li and Thompson (1981) or Huang et al (2009), such as an up-to-date description of rhotacism or fusion phenomena affecting high frequency function words such as the negative bu or the indefinite article yi. The style of the grammar is in fact closer in approach to Chao’s A Grammar of Spoken Chinese (1968) given the plenitude of excursus, formatted in small print in indented paragraphs, intended for those readers who wish to gain more information on a particular topic. Furthermore, the fine attention to detail for the phonetic and prosodic values of the data presented is to be much appreciated and noted as a hallmark of this grammar. The in-depth discussion of important lexical features such as tone sandhi or the neutralisation of tonal values is quite striking in its degree of precision. This feature, combined with the unwavering description of real discourse data, accounts for the great originality of the work. Nonetheless, a minor objection is that some of the chapters suffer from a lack of coherence in thematic matter, for example, the chapter on verbs (Chapter 5) flows into a major presentation of grammatical constructions which surely deserve a chapter in their own right (causative, passive, ditransitive and bǎ constructions inter alia). Yet the same chapter on verbs does not include the topic of resultative verb compounds, nor indicate associated characteristics of verbs such as the possibility of aspectual modification. (These topics are, it is true, subsequently considered in chapter 8 on tense, aspect and mood and chapter 10 on morphology but could have been usefully foreshadowed here.) As a consequence, the order of presentation and selection of topics to be discussed in any given chapter is not always transparent, and neither is the issue introduced or commented upon by the author. There are overall, however, more than sufficient meritorious aspects to compensate any such organisational deficiencies. Another minor point regarding the presentation: it is a pity that the Chinese characters are not provided for the indented examples from the corpus of Beijing and Taiwan Mandarin materials. A more detailed look at some of the interesting features of each chapter next follows in the form of a critical overview which weighs up both the pluses and minuses of this very solid and comprehensive grammar.
Lian-Hee Wee 黄良喜
The inseparability between poesy and phonology, though long recognized, has often taken the back seat in literary studies, championing instead the analysis of metaphors, historical context, stylistics and genre. In fact, the editor himself echoed Alexander Pope in the quotation, “The sound must be an echo to the sense”. This special issue dedicated to the sounds and senses of Chinese poetry, the namesake fruit of an international conference in 2014, is therefore cogent beyond the usual demands of literary studies. As evident from the set of essays contained therein, the volume extends into a truly cross-disciplinary and multi-perspective research programme that promises to enrich not only our understanding of the literary works, but also the deeper cognitive aspects of our capacity for language, particularly phonology. I cannot help but wonder if Alexander Pope might be mistaken, because the sound in poetry is not an echo, it is the actual physical manifestation (acoustic-physics or articulatory-phonetics) of the senses encoded by the abstract symbols from the poets’ written hand. The volume is structured into three main parts, bookended by the editor’s introduction at the onset and his theoretical reflections in the coda. I find reading the introduction particularly rewarding. The overview provided distills each article so elegantly that the volume as a gestalt of the various authors materializes as a crystalline tome treating Chinese verse and prose across nearly two millennia. A detailed review of each article in the collection is almost unnecessary as it is already so well-abstracted in the introduction.
Thomas P. Schoenemann; Peng Gang 彭刚; Robert Port
The International Conference in Evolutionary Linguistics held its 8th annual meeting (CIEL8) at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana, August 8-10, 2016. It was the first meeting in this series to be held outside of China. The conference was sponsored by many units on campus, including the Office of the Vice President for International Affairs, The College of Arts and Sciences, the Indiana University Ostrom Workshop, the Cognitive Science Program, the Departments of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Linguistics, and Anthropology, the Center for the Integrative Study of Animal Behavior, the East Asian Studies Center, the Australian National University-Indiana University Pan Asia Institute, and the Chinese Flagship Program. In addition, the Stone Age Institute (http://www.stoneageinstitute.org) hosted a beautiful dinner/reception, as well as the closing banquet on the last night. The organizing committee chair was Prof. Thomas Schoenemann, Department of Anthropology at Indiana. A total of 92 papers were submitted from researchers all over the world, including Mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Iran, Turkey, Ethiopia, Austria, France, the United Kingdom, and the U.S.A, of which 53 were accepted for oral presentation and 1 for poster presentation. There were 7 Keynote talks. Papers were presented in both English (37 papers) and in Chinese (17 papers).
报告第八届国际演化语言学研讨会 （美国 印第安纳大学 2016年 8月 8日至10日）
Meng Yeh 叶萌; Hongyin Tao 陶红印
The 2nd International Conference on Spoken Chinese Corpora, organized by the Center of Languages & Intercultural Communication at Rice University and co-sponsored by Nanjing University and Beijing Language and Culture University, was held at Rice University in Houston, Texas, from Austin 10-11, 2016. The use of spoken Chinese corpora, collected from both learners’ and L1 speakers’ data, is critical for the research and teaching of language. In contrast with languages such as English, where major spoken corpora and research products are available, the field of Chinese finds little available open-source spoken corpora and systematic applications. However, Chinese linguists and pedagogical specialists have been increasingly aware of the vital role that spoken corpora play in research and language teaching, as evidenced by the increased activities in corpus construction and research dissemination. The goal of this Conference, which is a continuation from the first one held in Nanjing in 2015,1 was to provide a forum where scholars could share ideas and innovations about the design, development, and use of spoken Chinese corpora. The focus of the 2016 Conference was to link theory and pedagogical applications. This review highlights the papers that provided substantial research-informed instructional designs and pedagogical suggestions in three areas: 1) naturally occurring conversation; 2) interlanguage; 3) lexicon.
报告：2016年中国人类学学会学术年会综述 (2016年 11月 4-6日), 上海 （中国）
Li Yaqun 李亚群; CaoXiaopei 曹晓佩
The 2016 Annual Meeting of Chinese Anthropological Society (2016 Nian Zhongguo Renleixue Xuehui Xueshu Nianhui 2016年中国人类学学会学术年会), jointly organized by The Chinese Anthropological Society and the Shanghai Federation of Social Science Associations (Shanghai shi Shehui Kexue Jie Lianhehui) , was held in Fudan University, Shanghai, China, on November 4-6, 2016. Focusing on the theme “Colorful Symbiosis Anthropology” (Duocai Gongsheng de Renleixue 多彩共生的人类学), the meeting was attended by over 320 scholars from China, the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States of America (USA), with reporting language mainly in Chinese. There were 12 keynote speeches and 101 presentations featuring six major themes: linguistic anthropology, physical anthropology, archaeological anthropology, historical anthropology, cultural anthropology and educational anthropology.
报告：第一届中国语言学青年学者论坛: 开展实证性、多学科和国际化的中国语言学研究 (2016 年10月15-16日), 天津 （中国）
Xia Quansheng 夏全胜; Xie Chenwei 谢郴伟; Qin Peng 秦鹏
The 1st Doctoral Forum of Chinese Linguistics (中国语言学博士论坛), renamed to The 1st POLA Young Scholar Forum on Chinese Linguistics (中国语言学青年学者论坛) during the meeting for a clear direction and for the young generation of scholars, took place at Nankai University, during October 15-16, 2016. The forum was jointly organized by the School of Literature of Nankai University, Institute of Linguistics of Nankai University, Institute of Speech-Language Pathology and Brain Science of Beijing Language and Culture University, and Journal of Chinese Linguistics publishing office. The forum aims to continue the pioneer scholars’ efforts of Project on Linguistics Analysis (POLA). As Prof. William S-Y. Wang has pointed out during the Forum, in the 50-yea history of POLA, a basis for empirical, international and multi-disciplinary research was formed and put into action for research on languages in China. We call this the spirit of POLA and encourage young scholars to advance knowledge of languages in China by the same spirit. (see also footnote 1 on previous page and POLA Forever, edited by Dah-an Ho and Ovid J.L Tzeng) A total of 50 young scholars from Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan attended the forum. And dozens of young college teachers and doctoral candidates sat in on this forum. Both English and Chinese were working languages of the forum.
第一届中国语言学青年学者论坛于2016年10月15日至16日在南开大学召开。本次会议由南开大学文学院、南开大学语言所、北京语言大学语言病理及脑科学研究所,及英文版中国语言学报 (Journal of Chinese Linguistics) 出版办公室共同举办。来自中国内地、香港和台湾的近50位青年学者参加了本次会议，还有多位青年教师和博士研究生列席旁听。 国际著名语言学家、Journal of Chinese Linguistics (英文版中国语言学报)主编、香港理工大学讲席教授王士元先生出席了本次论坛幷做开幕报告，题目为“语言的来龙去脉”。另一个主题报告来自南开大学教授、北京语言大学银龄学者石锋先生，题目为“实验语言学十问”。在大会主题报告外，青年学者们分别介绍了自己的研究成果，内容涉及语言与大脑、语言作为一个复杂适应系统、语言的历时与共时研究、汉藏语历史比较等研究领域。来自南开大学和天津师范大学的8位教授和博士生导师对青年学者的研究进行了点评，论坛专门安排时间为与会学者进行讨论。另外，论坛还在晚上举办联谊茶话会，使参会学者深入交流，彼此互相学习。 鉴于参加论坛的除博士生外，还有很多高校的青年教师，原来的“中国语言学博士论坛”决定改名为“中国语言学青年学者论坛”。POLA 是 Project of Linguistic Analysis 的缩写，是王士元先生６０年代分别在美国俄亥俄州立大学和加州大学伯克利分校以研究中国语言为重点的语言学实验研究项目及方向。来自世界不同国家，有着不同学科专业的学者曾来到 POLA 试验室办公楼，做试验研究，在这里定期讨论，作报告，交流合作。Journal of Chinese Linguistics(英文版中国语言学报)就诞生于加州大学。王士元先生在讨论会期间指出，在 POLA 的50余年历程中，POLA 实证性(empirical)，国际化(international)，及多学科(multi-disciplinary)的实践使其研究合作模式形成，幷有效的展现在我们中国多种语言的研究工作中。这就是 POLA 的精神。希望广大青年学者能继续发扬 POLA 精神，努力促进和推动中国语言学的发展。（另见本文首页英文脚注１） 今后，每年的中国语言学青年学者论坛都将在南开大学举办。Journal of Chinese Linguistics 出版办公室共同举办。来自中国内地、香港和台湾的近50位青年学者参加了本次会议，还有多位青年教师和博士研究生列席旁听。
Volume 45, No 2
The purpose of this research was to investigate the association of vocal attack time (VAT) and tones in speakers of Mandarin Chinese, and to explore how tones initiated at different pitch levels affected VAT. SP and EGG signals were synchronously recorded from 72 young undergraduates or postgraduates (42 females and 30 males) while they were reading aloud a wordlist of 50 disyllabic words at their most comfortable pitch, loudness and rate. VAT measures revealed three findings. (1) Vocal attack time shows no significant difference between the common yangping and the yangping derived from shangsheng. This, from a physiological perspective, supports the argument that the tone sequence 3-3 in Mandarin is indeed converted into 2-3, nothing else. (2) The tones of Mandarin Chinese that start from low pitch levels (35, 21) tend to present significantly different VAT values from those that start from high pitch levels (55, 51), with mean VATs of the former being much longer than those of the latter. This embodies the nonlinear contra-variant relationship between VAT and F0 at vowel onsets. (3) There are deviations or individual differences: a small number of people do not follow this pattern.
汉语作为典型的声调语言，有着四个能区分意义的词调：阴平(55)，阳平(35)，上声（214）和去声（51）。但由于连读变调，在语流中经常出现的四声调值为：阴平（55），阳平（35），上声（21）和去声（51）。本文旨在研究汉语普通话者的声门碰撞时间（Vocal Attack Time, or, VAT）与声调的关系，以探索起始于不同音高层级的声调对该参数的影响情况。我们从72位发音人（男30人和女42人）同时录制了50个双音节词的语音和喉头仪信号，所有发音人均为20多岁的在校大学生或研究生。单独样本的T检验表明：阳平以及由上声变来的阳平，去声以及由阴平变来的去声在声门碰撞时间上不存在显著性差异。这就从生理上支持了两上声相连，前上变阳平的观点。二因素重复测量的方差分析表明：起始于低音高层级的声调与起始于高音高层级的声调在声门碰撞时间上存在着显著性差异，前者的值明显大于后者。但还存在有个体差异，72位发音人中有26位不符合这一模式。
Vocal attack time 声门碰撞时间 Lexical tones 字调 Phonation onset 发声起始 Nonlinear contra-variant relationship 非线性反变关系
汉语方言中的 “可有VP?” 问句
Su'e Lin 林素娥
This paper discusses the construction of ke可-VP interrogatives with you有，in which you is used as the past tense marker. The ke you可有-VP interrogatives distribute in northern Wu dialects, Southwest Mandarin, Central plain Mandarin, and Jiang Huai Mandarin, which include the types of a阿you有VP, ge格you有VP and the combined sound of ke you. ke you-VP interrogatives in Chinese dialects have long been under pressure to yield to the construction of“ke VP-past aspect marker”expressing the same meaning. Its distribution reflects that it is not a burgeoning past tense marker but derived from the northern Wu dialects of Yuan and Ming dynasty and spread into other dialects before the late Ming Dynasty. you as the past tense marker developed from the existence verb you after the re-analysis in the ke you-NP interrogative; it not only conforms to semantic change principle but also to the typology tendency that “marker usually appears on the marked items before unmarked ones.” (Shen 1997) According to the functions and meanings of you before VP in Chinese dialects, we get the implicational universal: if you in one dialect can be used as the affirmative sign in declarative sentence, then it can be used as the past tense marker in interrogatives. So in our view, it is more reasonable to analyze the dynamic nature of you before VP in Chinese dialects.
“有”在“可VP”问句中表已然 (VP 为verb phrase (动词短语) 简称)， 构成“阿有VP”、“格有VP”与“可有”合音式等类型，分布于北部吴语、西南官话、江淮官话、中原官话等；已然问“可有VP”在今大多方言中正处于被等义的“可VP-体助词”替代的趋势中；其分布表明“有”在“可VP”问句中表已然是一种残存形式，而非新兴的表已然的标记，它源于元明时期的北部吴语，且于明末之前扩散至其他方言；“有”首先在“可VP”问句中由存在义动词语法化为已然体标记，既符合语义演变规律，也符合“标记在有标记项上的出现先于无标记项”(Shen沈家煊 1997)的类型学倾向；根据谓词前“有”在汉语方言中的句类分布和表义，我们得出一条单向蕴涵共性：即如果一种方言中肯定陈述句谓词前“有”表确认，那么“有”在该方言反复问句则可以表已然，反之则不能成立。因此，从跨方言“有”的功能和表义来看，我们认为应动态地看待南方方言“有”的性质，这样，更符合“有”的语法化规律。
Vernacular of Hexin township (Liyang, Jiangsu) 溧阳河心乡方言(江苏) ‘a阿you-VP’ interrogatives “阿有VP”问句 ‘you’ as the past tense marker “有”表已然 Residue 残留
Siu-kei Ken 郑绍基
This paper intends to study the tonal variation between tone 3a (i.e. Yinqu阴去) and 2b (i.e. Yangshang阳上) as observed in modern Hong Kong Cantonese. Two social variables will be involved: age and gender. In the light of apparent time hypothesis, the findings help to determine whether such a variation is a result of an on-going sound change. The results reveal that there are two on-going tone changes in opposite directions, namely, 3a > 2b and 2b > 3a, and so far the former seems more forceful than the latter. The sound changes are carried out by lexical diffusion, and the unit of diffusion is more likely to be disyllabic and other polysyllabic compound words rather than monosyllabic morphemes. The gender variable, on the other hand, is found significant only in 2b > 3a.
文旨在探讨现代香港粤语所出现的阴去(3a调)与阳上(2b调)声调交替的现象。本文将考察以下两个因素的影响：年龄和性别。基于显象时间假设，研究结果有助判定这种语音交替是否正在进行中的音变。结果显示，有两个相反方向的音变正在发生，即3a > 2b和2b > 3a，迄今前者的力量较大。另外，两者皆以词汇扩散的方式进行，但扩散的单位并非单音节的语素，而是双音节乃至多音节的合成词。至于性别此一因素，则只于3b > 3a发现有显著作用。
Cantonese 粤语 Tonal variation 声调交替 Lexical diffusion 词汇扩散 Compound 合成词
Yanzhi Li 李艳芝; Yicheng Wu 吴义诚
In Modern Chinese, there is an increasing number of disyllabic transitive verbs in the structural configuration [Vo] where o can be a nominal, a verbal or an adjectival morpheme, such as观光 (guānguāng: lit.‘see sight’) ‘sightsee’, 投资 (tóuzī: lit. ‘throw money’) ‘invest’, 留心 (liúxīn: lit. ‘leave heart’) ‘be careful of’ and注意 (zhùyì: lit. ‘focus attention’) ‘concentrate on’. These compound verbs can take another element as their objects and yield expressions in the structural configuration [Vo1+O2]. From an evolutionary perspective, this corpus-based study attempts to explicate the syntactic as well as the semantic mechanisms behind the formation and interpretation of disyllabic transitive verbs. It is pointed out that (i) the [VN+O2] type, which has the largest number, goes through threeevolutional phases during which Noun Incorporation plays a crucial role; (ii) the [Vv+O2] type is a nested complex structure, in which v is the object of V and is mostly transitive and hence capable to take one more object; (iii) although the above mentioned two types of compound verbs have different evolutional processes and mechanisms, they both indicate that there is a possibility that verbs can be converted from intransitive to transitive.
Disyllabic verb 双音节动词 Object 宾语 Transitivity 及物性 Evolution 演化机制 Noun incorporation 名词兼并
一组甲骨卜辞中 “翌” 之意义推论
Fei Deng 邓飞; Xu Wen 文旭
The oracle-bone inscriptions of the ancient Shang dynasty of China recorded on XiaoTunnandi Jiagu 小屯南地甲骨 (ZKY 1980) 2106, 214, and Jiaguwen Heji 甲骨文合集 (Guo and Hu 1978-1983) 6054, 9615, 11215, 13878, 20656, 21579 are of great academic values for studying the farming, weather, hunting and war of 3000 years ago. However, the meanings of one critical character yi 翌 in these oracle-bone inscriptions is still unclear, and it is difficult to accurately understand the oracle-bone inscriptions following the existing research achievements that yi 翌means ‘one kind of sacrificing activity’ or ‘the second day’. Based on the systematic property of oracle-bone inscriptions as a cultural image, this paper has studied the meanings of yi 翌in these oracle-bone inscriptions from such cultural subsystems as the expressions of time, the tradition of farming and the sacrifice circle. This paper has concluded that yi 翌in this group of oracle-bone inscriptions derived from the yi-form (yi si翌祀) sacrificing activities, indicating an around 4-month cycle of a yi-form sacrificing activity or the time of the yi-form sacrificing activity, which has the same cycle and location as the plant he 禾growing and harvesting. So yi 翌in this group of oracle-bone inscriptions is a metonymy of the yi-form sacrificing activities. These meanings of yi 翌are helpful to interpret the related oracle inscriptions and the bronze inscriptions of the same period. They along with the article are also present in strong linguistic value and documentation significance for learning about the ancient culture of farming and hunting and for investigating the time expressions in the oracle-bone inscriptions and bronze wares’ inscriptions of the Shang dynasty.
中国商代甲骨《小屯南地甲骨》 2106、214 及《甲骨文合集》 6054、9615、11215、13878、20656、21579记载有反映当时农耕、天象、狩猎、战争情况的卜辞，但其中“翌”的意义很特别，用以往的考释成果无法通读卜辞。本文着眼于甲骨卜辞作为文化镜像的系统性特征，从时间的语言表达、农业耕作传统、祭祀周期、天文历法等多个子系统多角度推进，深入研讨该组卜辞中“翌”的意义。我们认为：该组卜辞中的“翌”源于“翌祀”活动，“翌祀”与黍禾类庄稼的生长收获周期时间和周期位置重叠，所以可以用前者来转喻后者。“翌”可以表示“翌祀”周期的大约四个月时间，也可以表示处于“翌祀”周期中的时日。该研究解释了该组卜辞中“翌”的释义疑惑，并且希望其体现的语言学价值和文献意义对理解同时期的铜器铭文、祭祀和农耕制度、补充卜辞中有关时间的文献资料提供积极的帮助。
Semantics 语义 Systematic features 系统性特征 Oracle-Bone Inscriptions 甲骨卜辞 Yi 翌 Offer sacrifices 祭祀 Time cycle 时间周期
This study analyzes the tonal adaptation of a corpus of 340 English loanwords in Mandarin. I present evidence that only stressed/unstressed distinction is considered for disyllabic and monosyllabic loans. My principal finding is that the perceptual adaptation, stress-to-tone mapping is constrained primarily by tonal feature model of native phonology, while acoustic similarity plays a very limited role. Besides, other factors, such as vowel length of the donor language, and Mandarin Grammar including tonal gaps derived from tonogenesis and even euphemism also account for the tonal assignment.
Loanword 借词 Tonal adaptation 声调调整 Stress-to-tone mapping 重音-声调的对应关系 Vowel length 元音时长
INTRODUCTION In his review of Baxter and Sagart (2014), Ho (2016:210-7) objects to the use of the Buyang word of Chinese origin ma⁰lɔk¹¹ ‘deer’ as evidence for reconstructing a presyllable in the word 鹿 luwk ‘deer’ in Chinese. He argues instead that this word, while of Chinese origin, was borrowed through the mediation of Zhuang, and offers two competing hypotheses to explain the first syllable ma⁰-. First, he proposes that this ma⁰- could be a Buyang prefix added after borrowing took place. Second, he suggests that Buyang ma⁰lɔk¹¹ ‘deer’ was borrowed as a whole from Zhuang maxloeg ‘deer’, itself borrowed from Chinese 马鹿 mǎlù ‘red deer’. In this paper, I evaluate Prof. Ho’s claims from the point of view of Kra-Dai historical phonology. First, I show that his assertion that Buyang ma⁰lɔk¹¹ ‘deer’ is a Zhuang loanword is due to a misunderstanding of the cited source. Second, I present evidence that at least some Buyang presyllables are archaic features that should be reconstructed back to proto-Kra-Dai. Third, I discuss the reconstruction of Chinese 鹿 luwk ‘deer’ in the light of the first two sections.
The areas sharing the same sound change are usually in accordance with historical administrational regions as a result of the impact of the dominant culture. In this paper, with examples such as the modern reflexes of division 2, division 3 and 4 of Middle Chinese Jianmu Kaikou initials, and modern reflexes of Middle Chinese Bingmu initials in level-tone syllables as shown in GIS, the author identifies two critical periods in forming Chinese southeastern dialects: Weijin as the formation period of colloquial readings of Chinese dialects, and Tang, Wudai, Song, and Yuan as the formation period of literary readings of Chinese dialects.
Yeshes Vodgsal Atshogs; Sun Kai 孙凯; Gnamsras Lhargyal; Chang Min
1. THE FORUM AND ITS BACKGROUND The First Tibetan Language and Linguistics Forum1 (“Bod kyi skad yig bgro gleng tshogs vdu skabs dang po” in Tibetan,2 “Shoujie Zangyu YuyanxueYantaohui 首届藏语语言学研讨会” in Chinese) was held in Nankai University, Tianjin, China during August 27–28, 2016. The Forum was hosted by the School of Literature, Nankai University (Nankai [End Page 466] Daxue Wenxueyuan 南开大学文学院) and co-organized by the Nankai University Sino-Tibetan Languages Research Center (Nankai Daxue Hanzangyu Yanjiu Zhongxin 南开大学汉藏语研究中心), Ancient Tibetan Texts Research Society of Qinghai (Qinghai Zangwen Guji Yanjiuhui 青海藏文古籍研究会), and Shanghai Normal University Tibetology Research Center (Shanghai Shifan Daxue Zangxue Yanjiu Zhongxin上海师范大学藏学研究中心). It is also the first project covered by the Memorandum of Understanding for Educational and Academic Collaboration, signed on June 8, 2016, between Nankai University and the Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage of the USA. Representing their respective institutes, Prof. Yeshes Vodgsal Atshogs (Yixi Weisa Acuo 意西微萨·阿错), Dr. Mary S. Linn, Researcher Padma Lhungrub (Wanma Lengzhi 完玛冷智) and Prof. Wang Shuang-Cheng 王双成, took the lead in organizing the Forum. The Forum opening was presided over by Prof. Yeshes Vodgsal Atshogs and remarked by Prof. Chen Hong 陈洪,3 Dr. Mary S. Linn,4 Prof. Shen Li-Yan 沈立岩,5 and Prof. Shi Feng 石锋.6 Prof. Zeng Xiao-Yu 曾晓渝7 awarded the appointment letters to instructors of the Workshop held along with the Forum. Thirty scholars from eighteen domestic and foreign universities and institutes attended the Forum.8 They submitted a total of twenty-six full text papers or abstracts (ten in Tibetan, fourteen in Chinese and two in English), of which twenty-four were presented on site. The Forum used three [End Page 467] languages, including Tibetan, Chinese and English. Translation was done for English, but not for the other two languages. It was the first time that a special forum on Tibetan language study was held in mainland China. It is well known that Tibetan is a very old but vibrant language, and plays an indispensable role in Sino-Tibetan languages study because of its early written records dating back to 7th century, rich historical documents, sophisticated alphabetic writing system conceived as a reflection of the phonological features during the age when Tibetan characters were created, and various dialects. (Hu 2002:3) Meanwhile, research on it has never been cut off since the creation of Tibetan orthography over one thousand years ago. Throughout history, Tibetan native scholars borrowed and developed a set of theories and methods from the ancient grammarian tradition of India to study their own language (mainly written language), leaving a large number of great grammar books, such as Lung Ston Pa Rtsa Ba Sum Cu Pa, or, Sum Cu Pa (The fundamental thirty stanzas),9. Lung Ston Pa Rtags kyi Vjug Pa, or Rtags kyi Vjug pa (The combination of letters),10 Smra Bavi Sgo Mtshon Cha Lta Bu, or Smra Sgo Mtshon Cha (The weapon-like introduction to speech),11 and Si Tu Vgrel Chen12 (A thorough commentary on Sum Cu Pa and Rtags kyi Vjug Pa). Unfortunately, many of these are unknown in today’s linguistics circle because of the language barrier. Beginning in the 20th century (especially the latter half), under the influence of modern linguistic theories and methods, Tibetan language research has undergone fundamental changes, [End Page 468] such as the extension in range of research materials from written language to spoken dialects, and the reformation of research technology, methodology and purpose. (Denwood 1999, 289–356;13 Hu 2002, 112–162; Qu 2004, Wanma Lenzhi et al 2012). The research enterprise has also made plentiful achievements. However, this new trend is still at an initial stage in the homeland of the Tibetan language. Studies using the traditional Tibetan grammatical framework remain to be the mainstream; the influence of modern linguistics is still limited. We believe that an essential reason for this situation is the difference between academic paradigms, along with two other important reasons: the gap between academic languages and the lack of relevant university courses. Therefore, the Forum aims to provide a platform for scholars who are from different academic…
Mixed language use of Chinese and a foreign language is usually viewed negatively in mainland China and Taiwan. Perhaps the harshest critique of this linguistic habit is found in the well-received novel of Wei Cheng ‘Fortress Besieged’ by Qian Zhongshu, who compared the English words embedded in one’s Chinese speech to bits of meat stuck between one’s teeth. This mercilessly sarcastic criticism well demonstrates how insertion of English words in Chinese utterances is often stigmatized as showing off in either China or Taiwan. Hong Kong people, nonetheless, are blessed that they can be exempted from such judgment. Indeed, codemixing or translanguaging is not only commonly heard from TV channels, radio stations, or even on the streets, especially among college students, but the ability to switch between Chinese and English has been what is expected of the Hong Kong citizens, as exemplified by the Special Administrative Region’s language policy of biliteracy and trilingualism. This year celebrates the 20th anniversary of Hong Kong’s renationalization to China, so David C. S. Li’s newly published Multilingual Hong Kong: Languages, Literacies and Identities came as a timely and insightful overview of the linguistic and educational situation of this formerly British-ruled metropolis. Li’s book is structured into nine chapters. Chapter 1 introduces Hong Kong’s language context. Chapter 2 deals with language contact, focusing on sociolinguistic context and linguistic outcomes. Chapter 3 discusses Hong Kong people’s challenges in acquiring Standard Written [End Page 488] Chinese and Putonghua, while Chapter 4 presents their challenges in acquiring English for academic purposes. Both chapter 5 and 7 explore Medium-of-Instruction (MoI) Debate, but the former address the issue of mother tongue education and the dual MoI streaming policy since 1998, whereas the latter considers a more recent topic: whether Chinese should be taught in Putonghua. Chapter 6 zooms in to Hong Kong’s biliteracy and trilingualism policy, displaying its problems, dilemmas and stakeholders’ views. Chapter 8 shifts to the minority Hong Kong citizens, ie. those of South Asian descent, taking into account how to meet their needs for Chinese literacy. The last chapter reviews issues in language policy and planning, offering a summary and useful recommendations. The attitude taken in Qian’s novel first published 1947 might seem too much outdated in the mindset of the 21st-century e-generations. Today, mixture of Cantonese and English elements (or even some Korean ones, as Li points out in Chapter 2) in one’s speech simply reflects a variegated taste in Hong Kong, as acceptable as one may sprinkle one’s spaghetti with ketchup, or perhaps season one’s risotto with wasabi here. As a matter of fact, English has not merely penetrated the everyday spoken Cantonese in phrases like keep 住健康 (keep zyu6 gin6hong1) ‘keep healthy’ or 手機 mon (sau2 gei1 mon1) ‘cellphone monitor/screen’, thus making its appearance in local newspapers, TV commercials and movie subtitles as well, where colloquial written Cantonese is preferred, but it has also exerted its syntactic influence in Hong Kong Written Chinese. As Li observes, “the Anglicized clause structure […] 是時候 si6 si4hau6 […] is clearly a result of the high-frequency English structure ‘it is time (for someone) to do something’, especially in local Chinese media.” (p. 42) However, it would be wrong to assume that English is easily mastered in a society that boasts plurilingualism and multiculturalism. Why is Hongkongers’ English proficiency not proportionally improved despite the many years’ time and effort invested? In addition to the several salient typological differences between Chinese and English, outlined comprehensively in Li’s Chapter 4, another important factor he identifies is “a lack of a conducive English learning environment […], the conditions of the learning and use of English make it an untypical second language in Hong Kong, though not exactly a foreign language as in the rest of Greater China.” (pp. 140–1) [End Page 489] Although it is not rare to witness some Hong Kong parents speaking English to their kids, the demographic pattern of Hong Kong makes…
Qingwen Zhang 张庆文; Dingxu Shi 石定栩
To initiate the Major Project of the National Social Science Fund of China (Guojia Shehui Kexue Jijin Zhongda Xiangmu), “Overseas Chinese Grammatical Studies: History and Database Construction (Jingwai Hanyu Yufaxue Shi ji Shujuku Jianshe)”1 (Project No.: 16ZDA209), with Prof. Shao Jingmin 邵敬敏 of Liberal Arts College of Jinan University (Jinan Daxue Wenxue Yuan)2 as the principal investigator, an international symposium3 was successfully held at Jinan University in Guangzhou of China during March 18–19, 2017. In his keynote speech, Prof. Shao said that the project aimed at making a full-scale systematic investigation on overseas Chinese grammatical studies and tracking their development.4 A vital component of the project is the support from scholars around the world, in terms of their knowledge of the field and of various locations. The project has five sub-projects covering (i) the United States and America; (ii) Europe and Africa; (iii) Southeast Asia and Oceania; [End Page 497] (iv) Japan and Korea; and (v) Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan. The five sub-projects are led by Prof. Audrey Yen-Hui Li (University of Southern California, USA), Prof. Chong Qi 齐冲 Université Paris Diderot-Paris 7, France), Prof. Kang-Kwong Luke 陆镜光 (Nanyang Technological University, Singapore), Prof. Shi Dingxu 石定栩 (Guangdong University of Foreign Studies (Guangdong Waiyu Waimao Daxue, China), and Prof. Zhao Chunli 赵春利(Jinan University, China). The project will be implemented in two stages. Stage I focuses on data and literature collection, including information of publications, conferences, academic organizations, academic activities and biographies of key overseas Chinese grammarians. Stage II is on the developmental phases of overseas Chinese grammatical studies based on the literature, personal interviews or communication. (Shao 2017, 4) The project is expected to produce a five-volume book on the history of overseas Chinese grammatical studies, each volume focusing on a particular area. A sketch of the historical development of overseas Chinese grammatical studies will be presented first, followed by descriptions of the linguistic theories involved, the key overseas Chinese grammarians, inter-disciplinary studies and applied studies of Chinese grammar. A database will be constructed simultaneously, covering all the information related to overseas Chinese grammatical studies. The plan is to publish 3–5 review articles on the leading linguistic journals at the same time. (Ibid., 4–5) An Academic Advisory Committee was set up for the project, consisting of Prof. William Shi-Yuan Wang (The Hong Kong Polytechnic University), Prof. Lu Jianming (Peking University) and Prof. James Hao-Yi Tai (National Chung Cheng University). (Ibid., 7) The participants discussed in great detail issues to be investigated and difficulties to be anticipated. Possible solutions to the problems were proposed and specific tasks were assigned to various teams.
Zhou Youguang was the main architect and early advocate of Hanyu Pinyin (the official romanized orthography for Modern Standard Mandarin [MSM]). Although he had nurtured an interest in language studies already from the time he was in high school, Zhou did not become a professional language specialist until the mid-1950s, when he himself was already in his fifties. Before that time, he was an economist and financier, with a career that included working for a Chinese bank (Irving Trust, which represented Sin Hua [see below]) on Wall Street from 1946 and teaching as a professor at Fudan University in Shanghai three years later after the Communists took control of China. Toward the end of his life, he became increasingly interested in and outspoken on social and political issues. These aspects of his life have been well covered in many media accounts (see “Works Consulted” below). This obituary will focus mainly on the half-century when he was fully occupied as a linguist. Zhou was born Zhou Yaoping 周耀平 in Changzhou, Jiangsu Province, while the Manchus still ruled over the Qing Dynasty. He studied at St John’s University and then Guanghua University, both in Shanghai, graduating from the latter in 1927 with a degree in economics and a minor in linguistics. After the start of the second Sino-Japanese War in 1927, Zhou moved inland to Chongqing (Chungking), where he [End Page 500] took a job at the Sin Hua Trust and Savings Bank. He also studied in Japan for a while during the early thirties, first as an exchange student at the University of Tokyo, and later at Kyoto University. Although Zhou Youguang considered the study of languages and linguistics an avocation up through the first half of the 1950s, his life changed dramatically in 1955 when Premier Zhou Enlai, who had met Zhou Youguang earlier in Chongqing and knew of his fascination with languages and scripts, invited him to head a committee charged with the reform of written Chinese. It was lucky for Zhou Youguang that this opportunity arose, since many of his economist friends – especially those who had connections with the West – were severely persecuted and some of them committed suicide. Zhou and his committee of about 20 researchers worked for three years to design the new Romanization. The result was a scheme based on several earlier systems: the phonemes were adapted from National Romanization (Gwoyeu Romatzyh) (1928) and Latinxua Sin Wenz (1931), and the tone marks were inspired by Zhuyin Fuhao (Bopomofo). The efforts of Zhou Youguang and his colleagues on the Script Reform Committee bore fruit. On Feb. 11, 1958, Hanyu Pinyin was adopted by the First National People’s Congress and it soon had an enormous impact on Chinese society, economy, education, and culture. It was adopted as the official Romanization for Chinese, both by the International Organization for Standardization / ISO (1982) and the United Nations / UN (1986). Pinyin is the avenue by means of which all Chinese schoolchildren begin to learn how to read and write; and now – among countless other applications – Pinyin is the overwhelming means for inputting characters in electronic devices of all sorts (computers, cell phones, and so forth). It also has applications in many other areas of human endeavor: sign language, braille, semaphore, indexing and ordering (alphabetization), advertising, signage of all sorts, labeling, etc. Zhou Youguang helped to devise and perfect the use of Pinyin in all of these fields. Although Pinyin was a huge success, that did not save Zhou Youguang from being sent to a labor reform camp in the Ningxia countryside from 1969–1972 during the Cultural Revolution. He used to [End Page 501] tell stories about how his job was to act as a living scarecrow to keep birds away from the crops – a ludicrous assignment for a linguist of his stature. Zhou Youguang’s chief accomplishments were in language reform and applied linguistics, but he also had a deep interest in the history of writing worldwide. Several of his books and many of his articles detail various aspects of the development of writing throughout the world, including “The Family of Chinese Character…