Journal of Chinese Linguistics Vol.34 – 2006

Volume 34 No 1

Article 文章

Abstract 摘要
This paper re-examines the reconstruction of Old Chinese ending *-s as the origin of qusheng (departing tone) in Middle Chinese. Both external evidence and internal evidence for the *-s hypothesis are demonstrated to be insufficient. However, the consistency of external and internal evidence and the comparison between Bai and Chinese suggest that it is more compelling to establish two categories of qusheng words in Old Chinese, one category with *-s ending and the other without *-s ending.

 

本文重新考察了中古漢語去來源於上古漢語*-s尾的假說,指出支持該假說的內部証據並不充分。但來自各方面一致性証據都顯示更合理的假說是承認上古漢語的去聲分為兩類,一類有-s尾,另一類沒有-s尾。至於去聲的起源問題,目前的研究尚不足以作出確定的回答。

 

 

 

Keywords 關鍵詞

Old Chinese 古漢語 Qusheng 去聲 The *-s hypothesis *-s尾假說 Bai 白語 Consistency 一致性

Abstract 摘要
This paper studies a particular formational process in the ancient Chinese writing system known as bianti 變體 ‘graphic modulation’, by means of which cognate characters (not cognate words) are created. Graphic pairs such as zuo 左 ‘left’ – you 右 ‘right’, and shang 上 ‘above’ – xia 下 ‘below’ in their ancient forms are classical examples of this kind of graphical branching (through a reversing process). In the case of ji 即 ‘immediate’ (tone 2) and ji 既 ‘already’ (tone 4), a similar mechanism is found in their graphic formation. However, in most cases, these graphic pairs are not phonologically cognate terms. The approach in this paper is mainly inspired by Klima – Bellugi (l979) and Yau (1987, 1990), who have both observed modulation processes in the lexical branching of deaf people’s sign languages which have essential features in common with Chinese characters in their ancient forms. The two media are visual, gestural and often iconic. By drawing a parallel between this graphic phenomenon in Chinese and observations made by specialists in other linguistic areas, a case has been made for the modulation mechanism as a universal device for lexical creation on the representation level.

 漢語書寫系統裡有所謂"變體字"。像"左"-"右"、"上"-"下"等變體字彙,從字形角度看,其實是一種并列的同源字體,把其一的字形顛倒過來而構成的。此中像"即"-"既",也是通過類同的字形的變而形成的。然而,這類"變體字"在大多數的情況下,在音韻上並沒有親屬關係。 Klima – Bellugi (l979)和游順釗 (1987, 1990) 的聾人手語變體的觀察,對古漢字變體的研究很有啟發性。這是因為手語和古漢字都同屬於視覺和手勢動作的範疇,並常帶有象形性質的傾向。故本文的分析是以這幾位學者的著述作為理論基礎,通過對漢字裡這個特殊的形體現像和在別的語言領域裡的平衡觀察,論證"變體"在表達層次上為詞彙創造的一個遍性手段。

 

 

Keywords 關鍵詞

Ancient Chinese characters 古漢字 graphic modulation 變體 lexical branching 詞彙衍生 cognate characters 同源字體 gestural signs 聾人手語

Abstract 摘要
Japan fever introduces new Japanese loanwords to Taiwan Mandarin. This study examines the Japanese loanwords from three streams of borrowings and collects data from newspaper corpus, speaker’s colloquial usages and the literature. It aims to investigate the morphological representations of the loanwOrds, observe their influence to the lexical structure of Taiwan Mandarin and to examine the Japan mania and the social pattern.in Taiwan. Transliteration, loan translation, and form-meaning reproduction are three main types of written representations of these loanwords. The vocabulary in Mandarin is enriched either by the direct, indirect borrowings or by revivals due to the intensive contact in the history between Chinese and Japanese. In the new millennium, Japan is more a commercial example to Taiwan than an academic medium as it was a century ago. The Japanese loanwords are the pointers of Taiwan’s awareness when pacing toward globalization.

本文探討日語借詞對於台灣漢語的影響。語料的收集包括新聞語料庫、一般口語的使用,及文獻資料。日語借詞對台灣漢語的詞彙結構產生不小的影響,也激發了一些類綴詞的產生,及衍生了許多台製日語。借入的方式主要有三種:音譯,意譯,及特殊的形義借詞。無是直接或間接的日語借字,日語借詞豐富了台灣漢語的詞彙,而由於漢語、日語長久以來的密切接觸,有許多漢語的「復活詞」重現江湖。綜觀前後三個階段的日語借詞,各階段的社會背景不同,所以反映的社會現象也不同。近幾年哈日風潮所出現的日語借詞反映出台灣社會的經濟步調,及其在這個地球的角色認定

 

 

 

Keywords 關鍵詞

Japan mania 哈日風 lexical structure 詞彙結構 social discourse 社會面 language contact 語言接觸 revival 復活詞

Abstract 摘要
This paper reports statistical data on the use of syntactically and prosodically defined variables in speech repairs in Mandarin Chinese. These variables include structural types of Chinese repairs, their part of speech distribution and their syllabic characteristics regarding the retracing distance. With respect to the prosodic features of Chinese repairs, results on articulation rate of the overall data and the repair data are presented as well as a durational analysis of the reparandum and the alteration of frequent words. Pitch value, amplitude and duration are analyzed on the beginning positions of the to-be-corrected, the corrected, the to-be-repeated and the repeated words. Among the findings are a number of significant results in terms of the syntactic and prosodic variables within the re-initiation process of Chinese repairs and their relationship to intonation units.

 本文以語法與聲韻特徵分析探討現代漢語口語層次裡語誤與其更正的使用是否具語言學上的規律性。由語法角度進行漢語詞語更正類型分析、詞類分佈以及回溯距離分析。聲韻分析則主要是基頻、強度與音長三項聲學特徵在所有詞語更正序列中的字與語誤與正個別字下的測量。分析結果顯示現代漢語口語詞語更正是具有特定形式,而非任意隨機現象。但並不直接與語法或詞類相關,反而與詞組的音節數較為相關。特別的是在更正的起動點上,可以明顯觀察到聲韻標示。多數的聲韻標示又與語調單位特性相符。

 

 

Keywords 關鍵詞

Speech repairs 詞語更正 Mandarin Chinese 現代漢語 spoken corpora 口語語料庫

 

Abstract 摘要
Previous studies on temporal and tonal aspects of languages are usually based on limited data from a small number of subjects. It is difficult to know whether these findings can really represent the general temporal and tonal aspects of continuous speech, or just the speech of the specific subjects involved. Because of this difficulty it may not be appropriate to directly apply these findings to current speech technologies. In this study, large vocabulary continuous speech databases for Mandarin and Cantonese, recorded from large populations of subjects, are used to investigate the temporal and tonal aspects of syllables in continuous speech. Our findings include the following. No obvious temporal compensation effect has been found between the syllable initial (null initial being the sole exception) and the syllable final; Cantonese syllables exhibit less variation than Mandarin, achieving better isochrony. Then, following the example of the vowel balloons pioneered by Peterson and Barney, the tones of Mandarin and Cantonese with two parameters: Fo height and Fo slope, have been analyzed. Some linguistic hypotheses for tone development are advanced in the discussion of the tone balloons.

 

以往關於時長與聲調分析大體都是基于少量幾個發音人的有限語料。這樣就很難區分這些研究成果到底反映的是所研究語言的一般特征,還是少數幾個發音人的個人特征。由于這個原因,它們很難被直接運用到當今的語音科技。在本文中,我們利用錄自大量發音人的大型連續語音數據庫來考查在自然語流中普通話和香港話的時長與聲調特征。我們發現:在普通話和香港話中,聲母時長和韻母時長不存在明顯的補償作用(零聲母情況除外);香港話音節時長變動小于普通話,因而具有相對比較好的音節等時性。然後,我們依照 Peterson 和 Barney 考查元話的例子,利用聲調曲線的高度和斜率這兩個參數分析了普通話和香港話的聲調。並就聲調的發展討論了幾種語言學假設。

 

 

Keywords 關鍵詞

isochrony 等時性 temporal compensation 時間補償 tone 聲調 tone chart 聲調圖 Mandarin 普通話 Cantonese 廣東話

Abstract 摘要
This paper examines the linguistic affiliation of a small area of Jinhua district at the boundary to Taizhou district, Zhejiang province. The dialects used in this area are classified under the Wuzhou sub-group of Wu. According to the linguistic intuition of the informants from that narrow area, however, the local dialects are closer to the Taizhou than to the Wuzhou sub-group. Normalised fundamental frequencies of the yin-qu tone of a dialect in that area is compared with those of Taizhou and Wuzhou. It is found that the yin-qu pitch of the dialect under investigation is similar to those of Taizhou dialects. The most striking phonetic feature which the area shares with Taizhou is creaky voice associated with the shangsheng tones. Based on these findings, I suggest that the boundary between the Wuzhou and Taizhou sub-groups be moved westward to the Dapan mountain ridge and the dialects of that area be reclassified and included in the Taizhou sub-group. In addition, this paper suggests that the so-called Huangyan “mid-glottal stop” described by Chao Yuen Ren in 1928 is actually creaky voice.

本文考察浙江金華地區靠近台州的一小塊地區的方言歸屬。當地的方言是歸在吳語婺州片下。但是,根據當地人的語言直感,他們覺得更接近吳語台州片。我們調查了當地三個鄉村的方言,發現它們有很多語音現像與台州方言接近,而不同於婺方言。例如這三處的陰去聲都是高平調,與全台州的方言一致,但與它們所屬的磐安縣以及鄰近的金華地區的方言都不一樣。最引人傾耳的特徵是它們與台州方言一樣,上聲帶有嘎裂聲。根據這些發現,我們建議把台州片和婺州片的方言分界往西挪到大盤山脊,把本文考察的一小片地區划歸台州片。另外,本文還澄清了自趙元任以來的一個語音之謎:過去大家稱為"中喉塞"的其實是"嘎裂聲"。

 

 

 

Keywords 关键词

Creaky voice 嘎裂聲 broken tone 中折調 Wu 吳語 Taizhou 台州 Wuzhou 婺州 dialectal boundary 方言分界

Review 書評

Memoriam 緬懷

Annoucement 消息

Volume 34 No 2

Special Section on Historical Stratification 專題文章

Abstract 摘要
The Cantonese and English languages began their contact relationship 300 years ago when British traders arrived in Guangzhou to buy a variety of goods from Chinese merchants. As a result of this long history of intimate contact in the Cantonese-speaking region of South China, Cantonese has borrowed hundreds of English words through the process of phonetic transliteration. This paper examines the impact that the phonetic adaptation of English loanwords has had on the structure and development of the Cantonese syllabary. Although Cantonese and English are typologically distinct languages, nonetheless, this study on the stratification of English loanwords reveals how their phonological systems seem to fit hand in glove.

三百年前英國商人到廣州去買中特產的時候,粵語和英語就開始發生接觸關系。兩種語言在中國南部維持著長久和密切的關係,結果是粵語采用音譯方法來吸收不少英語的借詞。本論文分析音譯過程怎麼影響粵語音莭系統的結構和它的發展,雖然粵語和英語在類型學上是兩種不同的語言,不過在研究英語借詞的分層時我們發現兩種語音系統還是相當配合的。 

 

Keywords 關鍵詞

Stratification 分層 Loanwords 借詞 Cantonese 粵語

 

Abstract 摘要
In this paper, difficulties of stratifying sound correspondences are discussed. In principle, there is more than one way to stratify one-to-many correspondence without sound condition, and one often can not determine whether it is due to internal change or language contact. “A layer consistent with correspondences of kernel words” is proposed as the key stratum, which can be used to clarify the historical relationship between two or more languages.

提要:本文討論了語音對應分層的種種困難,原則上講,針對沒有語音條件限制的一對多語音對應,可以有多種解釋,而且我們常常難以斷定其源自於內部演變還是語言接解。本文提出涉及核心語素的語音對應是語言中的關鍵層次,可以用來判定語源之間的關係。

 

 Keywords 關鍵詞

Stratifying 分層 Sound correspondence 語音對應 Kernel Words 核心語素

Abstract 摘要
Intrigued by the various special features displayed in three Hainan Min dialects, the author of this paper has tried to figure out the role of stratification in language development. I have identified three main phonological strata for the words under examination, and have pointed out that the proto-forms of the Hainan Min are not homogeneous in nature. Competition and diffusion among different strata do not always result in similar developments in every dialect. The same word may have been derived from an older stratum in one dialect, but from a new stratum in another. In my attempt to define the rules underlying the competition, I make use of the notion “basic words”. The paper concludes with an observation that in order to adequately account for the development of Chinese dialects the traditional family-tree model needs further modification.

提要:本文根據中古澄母字在三種海閩語的表現,嘗試說明語言層次在語言演變中所擔當的角色。我們把澄母字分為三個主要層次,並指出這些層次早在原是海南閩語階段已經存在。層次的競爭,滲邊,在不同的方言里不一定會有相同的結果,好像同一個字,在甲方言裡它源於早期的層次,在其他方言裡它可以來自較晚的層次。文中也討論了影響競爭結果的規律。海南閩語告訴我們:傳統的"譜系樹"模型並不完全適用於描述漢語方言的發展。文音結尾提出了一些修訂的方案。

 

 

 

Keywords 關鍵詞

Language Strata 語言層 Hainan Min 海南閩語 Basic words 基本詞匯

Abstract 摘要
This paper examines some methodologies on stratification mainly based on the data from the Bai language. The elements of a syllable, not the whole syllable, are argued to be the basic unit for stratification. A Complementary Constraint is proposed. Faced with all kinds of challenges, the Sifter method as a working procedure is devised to figure out the oldest layer, though it is almost impossible to clarify each layer. The Sifter method is applied to Sino-Bai examples to figure out the oldest layer.

提要:本文主要依據白語材料檢討了歷史層次分析在方法論上的一些問題。本文認為應當以音的組成成分而不是整個音節作層次分析基本單位,還提出一個"互補制約"來排除晚近借詞。為應對層次分析可能遇到的種種困難,本文提出一個篩選法作為目前的工作程序,期望以此獲取最早的語言層次。

 

 

 

Keywords 關鍵詞

Stratification 層次分析 The Sifter Method 篩選法 Bai 白語

Article 文章

Abstract 摘要
The aim of this study is to analyse the system of Kam noun classifiers in synchronical typological and diachronical pan-Kam-Tai perspective. While Kam is at the center stage of this investigation, additional data are presented from a survey of 22 Kam-Tai languages which belong to four nationalities in the P.R. of China: the Dong, Bouyei, Shui and Zhuang nationalities. The main morphosyntax function of these Chinese Kam-Tai languages is to occur in quantificational constructions (numeral and quantifier) and in referential expressions (indefiniteness, demonstrative pronouns and nominalization). Classifiers in Chinese Kam-Tai languages appear in pre-nominal position and stand in constrast to classifiers of the Kam-Tai languages located in Burma, Thailand and Vietnam which typically project the classifier into post-nominal position. Concerning the semantics of classifier systems, the Chinese Kam-Tai languages involve animacy as primary parameter, dimensionality (shape) as secondary parameter, and functionality (or instrumentality) as tertiary parameter. The sound structure of a number of core-classifiers displays a surprisingly homogenous picture across the range of Kam-Tai languages surveyed.

本文研究的目的是對侗語名詞在現時類型學方面和全壯侗語系歷史性方面進行了分析。侗語是本文研究的重點,除此之外還增加了新的研究數據,這些新數據是來自22個壯侗語系語言的調查,這些侗語系的語言屬於中國四個少數民族,即:侗族、布依族、水族和壯族。這些中國壯侗語言的主要語素句法的功能是表現在數量結構和引導結構(不定概念、指示代詞和名物化)。中國壯侗語言的量詞是位於每個名詞前;不同於緬甸、泰國和越南的壯侗語言,後者的量詞是位於每個名詞後。量詞体係的語義在中國壯侗語言中以三種參數構成:第一是有生命參數、第二是有型參數,第三是功能參數。在我所調查的中國壯侗語言中,一些中心量詞的語音結構有比較相同的發音。

 

 Keywords 關鍵詞

Kam-Tai, Dong, Zhuang 壯侗語言 classifier 名量詞 referential 引導結構 quantificational 數量結構

Abstract 摘要
This article explores the historical origins of the introduction of Japanese loanwords in China, tracing their routes of entry into the language and analyzing their impact on the formation of modern Chinese. Since the mid-4th century, when Japan had begun systematically to borrow Chinese characters to form their own writing system, the Japanese language was under strong Chinese influence. During the late Edo and early Meiji periods, however, Japanese scholars rendered a huge quantity of western publications into Japanese, hastening the modernization of the language. Indeed, the success of modernization in Japan after the Meiji Restoration reversed the cultural flow between China and Japan. Shocked and awakened by its half-century-long failure in foreign and domestic affairs, China began to modernize at the end of 19th century, dispatching students to Japan to learn western science and technology, as well as subjects in the western humanities. Their learning reached a Chinese readership through the medium of translation. For these Chinese translators, modem Japanese was an indispensable vehicle of western knowledge and linguistic transformation. Many Japanese-redefined and Japanese-created words were introduced in their translations with little modification, and these Japanese loanwords gained cun-ency in Chinese. More significantly, the Japanese practice of creating new words to accommodate new knowledge influenced native linguistic practice, hastening the formation of modern Chinese. The introduction of Japanese loanwords into China also marked the beginning of a new period of Sino-Japanese relations, initiating a two-way cultural exchange between the two nations.

本文探討日語外來語在中的來龍去脈,即追溯其進入漢語的渠道及其對現代漢語形成過程的影響。日本自四世紀中葉開始大規模導入漢字以形成其書寫系統以來,日語一直處於漢語的強大影響下。然而抵江戶幕末和明治初期,日本學者將卷牒浩瀚的西文典籍譯成日語,加速其語言的現代化過程。明治維新所帶來的日本現代化的成功逆轉了中日之間的文化流向。錯愕和震驚於半個多世紀在內外事務上的失敗,中國在十九世紀末開始派遣學生留日,希望通過學習西方科技文化知識帶動國家現代化。留日學生習得的知識通過翻譯傳給中讀者,對他們來說,現代日語成了傳播西方知識和促成語言轉型的不可或缺的工具。許多日語賦予新意和新造的詞彙幾乎未經處理就直接輸入,成為漢語的強勢語彙。更為重要的是,日語以新詞彙傳釋新知識的實踐影響了漢語的發展,加速現代漢語的形成。日語外來語的輸入還標志著中日關係新時代的來臨,在兩國之間開始了雙向型的文化交流。

 

 Keywords 關鍵詞

Chinese language 漢語 Modern Chinese 現代漢語 Japanese language 日語 Loanword 外來語 Study abroad 留洋 Sino-Japanese relation 中日關係 Cultural exchange 文化交流 Western learning 西學 Publication 出版物

Abstract 摘要
This paper presents a lexical and constructional perspective of bong2 罔 ‘might as well’ in Taiwanese Southern Min (TSM). It captures semantic and pragmatic dimensions evoked by bong2 罔 in terms of a contrast of text proposition and context proposition as well as a scalar model (Fillmore et al, and Kay 1990 8z. 1997). There are two major types of complex constructions carrying concessive meaning: (1) bong2 罔 in the main clause, and (2) X — bong2 罔 -X in the subordinate clause, each with specific meanings of its own. Besides its concessive reading bong2 罔 is used as a downtoner in understatement. The co-occurrence restriction of bong2 罔 with verbs exhibits the features of its construction as a pairing of meaning and form. The concessive function of bong2 罔 is foreshadowed in Li Jing Ji 荔鏡記 (1566 A.D.), a sixteenth century Southern MM script of a play.

本文從詞彙和格式的角度探討台灣閩南語的 bong2 "罔"的面貌。我們根據文本命題和背景題的對立及程度模式 (Fillmore et al, and kay 1990 & 1997) 來掌握 bong2 “罔”所引發的語義和語用的屬性。Bong2 "罔"主要用於帶讓步意義的兩種複雜的格式:(1) bong2 "罔"出現於主要子句,(2) X – bong2罔 -X 出現於附屬子句,各個格式都有它的特性。Bong2 "罔"除了帶讓步語義還可以充當含蓄說法中的淡化詞。Bong2 "罔"和動詞之間的共存限制也反映了形義相配的格式特性。Bong2 "罔"這種讓步的用法在明代的閩南戲文"荔鏡記"(1566年)裡已經有跡可循。

 

 Keywords 關鍵詞

Lexical 詞匯 Constructional 格式 Taiwanese Southern Min 台灣閩南語 bong2 罔 Scalar model 程度模式 Concessive 讓步 Downtoner 淡化詞 Li ling Ji 《荔鏡記》    

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