Journal of Chinese Linguistics Vol.39 – 2011

Volume 39, No 1

Article 文章

Abstract 摘要
Our recent studies on the ancient non-Chinese scripts, namely the Khitan Lesser Script, the Jurchen Script, and the hP’ags-pa Script, have demonstrated that the basic characteristics of modern Northern Mandarin can be traced to the Liao dynasty, about three centuries earlier than the Zhongyuan Yinyun of 1324, which is commonly accepted as the earliest evidence of the Mandarin phonology. Of the seven phonological characteristics analyzed, five characteristics, including the devoicing of MC voiced obstruents, already existed in the Liao dynasty. That Mandarin originated in the territories of Liao and Jin has been speculated by a number of Chinese linguists. Now the speculations on the origin of Mandarin can be firmly proved with linguistic evidence.

 

我们近年来对辽金元三代契丹、女真、八思巴文字的研究揭示现代北方官话的基本语音特征可追溯至辽代,比《中原音韵》,即一般所接受的官话音系最早证据,早了近三百年。在所分析的现代北方官话的七个语音特征中,五个在辽代汉语中已经出现。不少语言学家曾猜测官话起源于辽金疆域之中。现在这个官话起源的猜想可以用语言学材料来具体证实。

 

Keywords 关键词

Origin of Mandarin 官话起源 Phonological characteristics 语音特征 Ancient non-Chinese scripts 古代民族文字

Abstract 摘要
Hakka is one of the main dialect families of the Chinese language. Most Hakkas live in southern China, but some have historically immigrated to several countries in Southeast Asia, including Thailand. Although there are some reference works on the Hakka language, there has not yet been any acoustic study of Hakka tones. The acoustic study of tone is used for a clear comprehensive analysis of the tonal system. The purpose of this paper is to present an acoustic analysis of the tonal system of Hakka as spoken in Bangkok Thailand. Previous studies which have been based on auditory analyses (Pratoom: 1984, Jurairat: 2001, and Wandee: 2003) have identified only four tones in Hakka as spoken in Thailand. Furthermore, there were differences in the tone values described in these three studies. The results of acoustic analysis in this study show that there are six contrastive tones, viz. mid level, mid-low falling, mid falling, mid-high level, short mid falling, and short mid-high level in the Hakka language as spoken in Bangkok. Differences in the duration of live and dead syllables were found, with the former twice the duration of the latter. There are only two tone contours of level and falling. The differences between the start and end of F0 on syllables distinguish between a falling tone and a level tone. In addition, there are two allotones produced through tone sandhi. The first one occurs on Tone 1 Mid Level; its contour changes from -|33 to /|325 when it is followed by lower tones. The second allotone occurs on Tone 4 Mid-High Level; its contour changes from -|44 to \|53 when it is followed by another level tone. The acoustic measurement of Hakka tones provides a clearer and more comprehensive analysis of the Hakka tone system than the previous auditory descriptions.

 

以前一些基于听觉的研究发现泰国曼谷客家话有四个声调。由于学者们的结论一般都是基于耳听结果, 其中存在着主观因素,因此各文献描写的声调调值也有所不同。本文主要是通过语音分析,客观探讨泰国曼谷客家话的声调系统。 声学分析结果表明,曼谷客家话有六个单字调, 分别是1. 阴平:中平调 [33] ; 2. 阳平:中低至低降调 [21] ; 3. 上声:中降调 [31] ; 4. 去声:次高平调 [44] ; 5. 阴入:促中降调 [32] 以及 6. 阳入:促次高平调 [5]。 平调和降调是曼谷客家话的基本调型。 另外,曼谷客家话塞韵尾音节的时长是长音节时长的一半。泰国曼谷客家话的连续变调有两种:1. 阴平中平调 [33] 在低调类字前变读为[325]; 2. 去声次高平调 [44] 在平调前变读[53]。相比以前的研究,本文为泰国曼谷客家话声调系统的声学研究提供了更客观而全面的资料。

 

 

Keywords 关键词

Acoustic analysis 声学分析 Hakka tone system 客家话声调系统 变调规律 Tone sandhi, Hakka in Thailand 泰国曼谷客家话

Abstract 摘要
This paper makes an attempt to construct a framework of how Chinese basic color terms evolve over the past 4000 years, which is divided into several periods, by an analysis of the relevant literature in history on the basis of word frequency counts. Then we discuss what stage each period should be classified into under Berlin & Kay’s framework and its recent developments. Against these findings, the similarities and differences between our corpus and Berlin & Kay’s assumptions are analyzed and presented. In addition, the replacement of Chi by hong is also discussed with reference to the Lexical Diffusion theory.

 

本文基于词频统计角度,通过对汉语历代文献的分析研究,试图构建汉语基本颜色词在过去4000多年中的演化框架。在此基础上,我们将汉语基本颜色词的演变与Berlin & Kay的基本颜色词演变理论及其最新进展相验证,以此讨论了汉语基本颜色词的演变与Berlin & Kay理论假设的异同。 此外,我们还结合“词汇扩散”理论探讨了“以红代赤”这个词汇更替过程。

 

Keywords 关键词
Basic Color Terms 基本颜色词 Diachronic Study 历时研究 Lexical Diffusion 词汇扩散 Color Category 颜色范畴

Abstract 摘要
This paper studies the disambiguation of Mandarin cha-dian-mei (CDM) ‘miss-bit-not’ + V structure, which has either a positive or negative interpretation. I present data to illustrate the interpretational effects caused by post-verbal objects and the perfective-marker le, which have not been discussed in the literature. I conclude that CDM + V, like Mandarin passive voice, is an adversity structure with a default negative interpretation and M is an expletive negator. Also, when V is desirable, CDM + V desirable should be segmented as CD + M Vdesirable. I also argue that cai and jiu are syntactic cues for segmentation and that CDM + V is one of the very few counterfactual expressions in Mandarin, similar to cases in Russian, Spanish, and French where expletive negators appear.

 

中文的“差点没 + V”结构即可有肯定也可有否定解释,本文就研究“差点没 + V”的解疑问题。我将介绍文献尚未涉及的动词后宾语和完成体标志“了”在解释“差点没 + V”时的作用。我证明正如中文被动语态,“差点没 + V”是一种“逆境”表达方式,以否定解释为默认解释,而“没”是一个虚位否定词。当动词有褒义意时,“差点没 + V褒义”应被切分为“差点 + 没V褒义”。我同时认为“才”和“就”是切分“差点没 + V”的句法手段。“差点没 + V”是中文为数不多的反事实假设表达方式之一,这与俄语、西班牙语、法语虚位否定词出现的环境类似。

 

Keywords 关键词
Mandarin 中文 Expletive negator 虚位否定词 Segmentation 切分 Counterfactual 反事实假设 cha-dian-mei 差点没

Abstract 摘要
Factors such as preceding or following tone, pitch range, and prosodic position have been found to have an impact on phonetic tonal realization (Gandour et al. 1994;Shih 1988; Liberman & Pierrehumbert 1984; Pierrehumbert & Beckman 1988; Peng1997). The present study used Rugaohua, a Southern Mandarin dialect, as a testing ground for some of the theoretical claims and tonal realization models. It was found that preceding tone and pitch range, as well as underlying tonal specification for target syllable, were important factors in a tonal realization model for Rugaohua. In particular, a preceding tone with a L target down steps a following tone, and different L targets may have different down stepping effects. When pitch range was manipulated by increasing and decreasing voice volume, high tones were affected more than low tones. The data suggest that there may also be following tone and prosodic position effects, calling for further investigation on these factors.

上下文、音域、句中位置等因素都对音调的实际调值有影响(Gandour et al.1994; Shih 1988; Liberman & Pierrehumbert 1984; Pierrehumbert &Beckman 1988; Peng 1997)。本研究试以汉语官话江淮方言如皋话的语料来考察关于声调实现的一些理论及模型。我们发现字调的实际调值除受本身调类限制外,也受到前字声调及音域的影响。尤其是当前字声调为低(L)时,目标字的实际调值有明显降低,且不同的低(L)调会造成目标字声调不同程度的降低。而当音域因音量的加大或减小而发生相应变化时,目标字高(H)调受到的影响比低(L)调大。我们的语料还显示,后字的声调及目标字在句中的位置可能也对目标字的实际调值有一定影响,因此我们应对这些因素作进一步的考察。

 

Keywords 关键词

Chinese (Mandarin) dialect 汉语(北方话)方言 Phonetic tonal realization 声调的语音实现 Tonal context 声调环境 Pitch range 音域

Abstract 摘要
The rising prominence of China on the international stage, worldwide enthusiasm with studying Chinese, and national security interests of the US have provided unprecedented support for the studying and researching of Chinese as a foreign language in the US. However, these opportunities also expose the many challenges facing the Chinese language field. This work reports on the current state of affairs of the field, including an overview of programmatic structures, opportunities and difficulties. It also surveys the research on the learning of the various skills and knowledge of the Chinese language, learning strategies, processing of the language, and the building of the field. Future directions and topics are suggested to elevate the research on Chinese as a foreign language to a different level.

 

中国在国际舞台上日益彰显的影响力,高涨的全球范围内的汉语学习热情,以及美国自身的国家安全利益的需要,使得美国对汉语教学的研究与探讨也达到了前所未有的高度。然而,这些机遇同时也带来了汉语研究领域所面临的诸多挑战。本文报告美国汉语教学和研究的现状,包括现存汉语项目、汉语教学与研究的机遇与困难,同时也综述了一系列研究,包括汉语知识与技能的习得、学习策略、语言发展以及汉语研究领域的构建。在此基础上提出了关于未来研究课题与方向的一些建议,希望这些能对促使美国汉语教学研究更上一层楼有所帮助。

 

Keywords 关键词

Chinese as a foreign language teaching in the US 美国的汉语教学

Review 书评

Abstract 摘要
The Sounds of Chinese is a textbook providing a clear introduction to the sounds of Standard Chinese, designed for English-speaking students with no prior knowledge of linguistics. The following characteristics in the book are discussed: (1)the perfective integration of phonetics and phonology in the whole book; (2) the correct pronunciation described by the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) to all the pinyin letters for foreign learners; (3) the clear comparisons of the sounds in English and Chinese with relevant examples, along with practical pronunciation advice; (4) the helpful explanation of Chinese loanword phonology to understand the phonetic system of Standard Chinese. The Sounds of Chinese spread an approach to Chinese sounds.

 

The Sounds of Chinese (汉语的语音) 是为母语为英语的学生了解汉语语音知识,学习汉语普通话的发音而写的一部重要的教科书。书中的内容有几个方面的特点:一、全书自始至终都体现语音学跟音系学的对接与结合;二、使用国际音标对于汉语拼音作出系统标注有利于外国学生的正确发音;三、采用英汉对比方式举例进行语音分析,既是教学的坦途又是发现的捷径;四、英汉借词音系学的解说加深对于汉语语音系统的理解和认识。The Sounds of Chinese (汉语的语音) 是一本了解和学习汉语语音的好著作、好教材,是通向汉语语音的便捷之路。

 

Keywords 关键词

The Sounds of Chinese 汉语的语音 phonetics and phonology 语音学与音系学 IPA 国际音标 pinyin 汉语拼音 loanword phonology 借词音系学

Abstract 摘要
This paper reviews Xiaolu Yang’s book, which empirically investigated Mandarin L1 children’s acquisition of two focus adverbs: cai and jiu ‘just’. Her first two chapters review semantic, pragmatic and acquisition literature on focus adverbs. Based on four semantic and pragmatic dimensions of these two particles: namely time, quantity, conditional, and restrictive domains, Yang designed six main experiments and the results largely supported her hypotheses: jiu being acquired earlier than cai. Yang’s hypotheses are well grounded and her designs are original and empirically verifiable. Since the conditional domain of cai and jiu is more complex than their time/quantity domains, the former was acquired later. Moreover, the restrictive domain of cai and jiu showed different patterns from those in other domains. In addition to reviewing her experiments and results, we further suggest a development order for acquisition of association with focus, which may provide a natural motivation for Yang’s subset principle account.

 

本文评介杨小璐2009年所出版其1998年之博士论文专书–焦点语标量:汉语助[副]词「才」和「就」的儿童语言习得。杨在第一、二章分别以汉语与英语回顾文献对焦点副词语意,语用及第一语言习得的研究。根据「才」及「就」语意及语用上的四个面向,即时间、数量、条件、限制面向,杨设计了六大项主要实验。结果证实杨之假设: 「就」比「才」较早习得。并且因为条件面向之「才」/「就」语意语用较时间及数量面向「才」/「就」之语意语用复杂,前者习得之结果有异于后者。限制面向之「才」/「就」/「只」对儿童也较难。杨总结以「子集原则」解释儿童习得之过程。杨之假设乃以语意及语用学理论为根据,且设计之实验项目丰富且极具原创性,能有效验证儿童「才」及「就」之习得。本文除评介其实验内容及结果外,也提出焦点关连习得发展之三个阶段之假设,此提议可以针对杨所提出子集原则的分析提供更自然的解释。

 

Keywords 关键词

Focus adverb 焦点副词 Jiu 就 Cai 才 Association with focus 焦点关连 Scalar implicatures 标量蕴涵 Focus acquisition 焦点习得

Abstract 摘要
演化语言学研究人类语言(以下简称语言)何时、何地、以何种方式产生、发展和消亡(Ke and Holland 2006)。由于语言(尤其是言语)不留下化石等直接证据,这一研究一直是科学中最难的问题之一(Christiansen and Kirby 2003a)。甚至于1866年巴黎语言学会明确宣布不再讨论语言演化相关课题,认为它是一个无法回答的问题(Stam 1976)。然而,半个世纪来对语言演化的研究取得了很多令人振奋的硕果(见Christiansen and Kirby 2003b; Bickerton and Szathmáry 2009; Smith et al. 2010; Gong et al. 2010)。现执教于维也纳大学的认知生物学教授W. Tecumseh Fitch于2010年出版了新著The Evolution of Language (语言的演化),探索了动物与人类认知和交际的演化,尤其是言语、音乐和语言的发展。本文评介该新著,并对中国语言演化研究的新进展做一总结,以供研究语言演化及相关学科的学者参考。

Report 报告

Abstract 摘要
The International Symposium on Sino-Tibetan Comparative Studies in the 21st Century (二十一世紀漢藏語比較語言學研討會) was held June 24-25, 2010 in Taipei, Taiwan. The conference was hosted and organized by the Institute of Linguistics at Academia Sinica (中央研究院語言學研究所). The main sessions consisted of ten invited thirty-minute presentations, each followed by a ten-minute response from a designated discussant, with an additional ten minutes allotted for general questions and discussion. Full papers of the presentations were provided to conference participants. On the afternoon of the second day, after the main sessions were concluded, four panel discussions were held on topics of general importance for the field. The symposium’s opening remarks were delivered by the Director of the Institute of Linguistics, Jackson T.-S. Sun, and by Sinica Academician Tsu-Lin Mei. Jonathan Evans of the Institute of Linguistics delivered the remarks that closed the symposium.
Although the presentations covered a wide variety of topics within the broad field of Sino-Tibetan and Tibeto-Burman comparative linguistics, a few major themes and concerns emerged as foci of the discussions. These included the role of comparative evidence in the reconstruction of Old Chinese phonology and morphology; the value and application of macro-level vs. micro-level reconstruction within Tibeto-Burman; and methodological issues in subgrouping.

Memoriam 缅怀

New Publication 出版消息

Volume 39, No 2

Article 文章

Abstract 摘要
This paper aims to tease out the paths of grammaticalization of Southern Min causative verbs, chhoa7拽, kah4 甲, sai2 使, kio3 叫, khit4 乞and thoo3 度. Their semantic extensions affect the interpretation of the pivotal construction which they all share. These causative verbs, at a light verb position, link two events which have leeway for reinterpretations. 拽, 甲, 使, and 叫 go from dynamic causative to stative causative. 乞 and 度 are interpreted differently in different constructional types. As verbs of giving, they develop ditransitive construction, then permissive causative and finally passive. The lexical properties of these verbs endow the causative construction with new meanings.

 

明清时代闽南语戏文富含使役与致使动词,如:「chhoa7 拽、kah4 甲、sai2 使、kio3 叫、khit4 乞和thoo 3 度」。虽有類似的语法功能,且都出现于兼语式中,但每个动词的语法化途径不同,虚化程度不一,皆与其原本的语意紧密相关。藉由早期与现代闽南语的比较,可 发现这些动词的语意扩张将会影响兼语结构的解释,主要归纳为两条路线。其一为从动态使役到静态致使,如「拽、 甲、使、叫」的语意泛化造成命令意涵减低,主语可为不带有情性(animate)的事件。其二则为由双宾动词转入被动用法,如给予动词「乞、度」。「乞、 度」在兼语结构已发展出容让使役用法,若主语含有非出自意愿允让之意,易有容让与被动的模糊解释地带,进而推衍出被动用法。本文进一步比较闽南语和官话致 使动词在语法化歷程上所反映的不同步现象,闽南语动态使役极少发展成成熟的静态致使,但官话却极为普遍。此外,官话的动态使役动词可转为被动用法,但闽南 语的被动却來自双宾动词。此六个使役与致使动词皆作为兩个事件的连接点,因此语意扩张时, 两个事件的关系易于重新诠释为兼语构式。

 


Keywords 关键词
Dynamic causative 使役动词  Stative causative 致使动词  Permissive causative 容让使役  Passive 被动 Grammaticalization 语法化  Southern Min 闽南语

Abstract 摘要
Fănqiè (反切) languages are secret languages found in various dialects of Chinese. Drawing on previous analyses, this paper seeks insight into the linguistic mechanism encoded in fănqiè languages by investigating one of the varieties with living speakers, Huidong La-mi and offers a typological account of fănqiè languages across the board under the framework of optimality theory (OT). A close examination of Huidong La-mi has revealed that fănqiè language formation is stem syllable copying, which is expressed as the constraint IDENTSYLLABLE(Stem, Output). The input of fănqiè languages is assumed to consist of the source syllable and the added material while the output is essentially a rearrangement of the input segments to satisfy the syllable well-formedness constraint IDENTSYLLABLE(Stem, Output).

 

反切语是在多种方言中都有所记录的秘密语。本文基于前人的论述,在优选论(Optimality Theory)的框架下仔细分析了反切语中仍有使用者的惠东客家双音话(笔者称之为惠东La-mi)来探究隐藏在反切语中的语言机制,并在分析惠东La-mi的基础上提出了反切语的类型解释。详探惠东La-mi揭示了反切语的构成是词根音节的拷贝,可表达为优选论的约束条件IDENTSYLLABLE(Stem, Output)。这也就是说,反切语的基本形式包括词根音节和附加语言材料,其表面形式本质上是重新排列基本形式的构成材料以满足音节成形的约束条件IDENTSYLLABLE(Stem, Output)。

 

Keywords 关键词

Fănqiè languages 反切语 Secret languages 秘密语 隐语 Language games 文字游戏 OT 优选论

Abstract 摘要
There are two folds of reconstruction, phonological categorization and phonetic interpretation. Both of them start on the basis of systematic sound correspondences. Notably, sound correspondences do not imply phonetic similarity. In order to rule out chance correspondence, to stratify different layers of correspondences, and to reconstruct proto-forms completely, the requirement of complete sound correspondence should be insisted upon. The contrast of different sets of sound correspondence should be reflected in proto-forms, and the reconstruction of a proto-language should cover all sets of sound correspondence. Consistent correspondence is necessary for stratification of different layers. Sound correspondences containing kernel morphemes should be given more weights in reconstruction. These principles are applied into the reconstruction of Proto-Yi based on six Yi dialects in China. The tonal system is reconstructed, and two pre-initials *h- and */- have been exemplified. These forms are used to explain the emergence of pre-glottalized initials in the Weishan Yi and how the reflexes in other dialects come into being. Meanwhile, the tonal development of the Nanhua Yi and the Shilin Yi and the behaviors of kernel morphemes confirm the reconstruction of the two pre-initials.

重构可以分为音类拟测和音类赋值两个方面,这两个方面都以系统的语音对应为必要条件,因此系统对应是重构的基础。对应不一定是相似,为了排除偶然对应、有效区分对应的时空层次以及对原始形式进行完全构拟,应坚持完全对应;对应模式上的差异应在原始形式上体现出来,重构应该建立在穷尽对应模式的基础上;一致对应是区分对应时空层次的必要条件,与核心语素一致的对应应该是原始形式的主要依据。根据中国境内6种彝语方言的材料,应用上述原则,我们重构出原始彝语的声调系统,幷论述了与声调重构相关的原始彝语的前置辅音*h-和*/-,解释了巍山彝语先喉塞音声母的来源,以及这两个前置辅音在其他彝语方言中的变化模式,同时根据南华和撒尼彝语中声调的发展以及核心语素的表现确认了重构前置辅音*h-和*/-的理由。

 

Keywords 关键词

Reconstruction 重构 Sound correspondence 对应 Proto-Yi 原始彝语 Pre-initial *h- 前置辅音*h- Pre-initial *- 前置辅音*-

Abstract 摘要
This paper calls for a more rigorous methodology in the studies of paleography and excavated manuscripts and for a closer marriage between paleography and historical linguistics. I use one example (the case of the decipherment of the graph yu, “to sell,” in Chu manuscripts) to illustrate the limits of the current methods and how a more rigorous method—including the application of the new development in Old Chinese phonology—can help paleographers to do better in their interpretation of excavated texts and to better understand language and graphic changes. I also use this example to argue that the mistake the scribes made in the manuscripts could be used as evidence for sound change in early China.

本文通过考释战国楚简从“𡍬”得声的儥、䢱、觌等字,讨论古文字考释的方法论问题。古文字研究,尤其是出土简帛研究,应当在方法上更严谨,密切注意文字、文献的时空背景,结合历史语言学研究的新成果,以现代语文学的方法,分析、解释文字的“讹误”及演变。本文对战国楚简疑难字“儥”字字形之所以写成从人从𡴎从贝,尤其是何以从“𡴎”,提出两种可能的解释:一,儥字所从的“𡴎”是因为儥字的声符“六”被写成像“𠂤”的字形,以致误“𡴆”为“𡴎”;另一种可能是,“𡴎”是“𡉣”字的同音替代字,而“𡉣”字是由儥字的声符“坴”讹变而来。这两种情况都可能反映了当时由于读音改变而造成的字形变化。最后,本文强调,古文字研究在用通假解释文字关系时,应该注意通假字的共时性。

 

Keywords 关键词

yu (“to sell”) du and di 儥、䢱、觌 “Graphic alteration” and phonetic change “形讹”与音变“Graphic borrowing based on rough phonetic similarity”“音近通假” Synchrony of loan graphs 通假字的共时性

Abstract 摘要
The present paper is an attempt at analyzing the verbal morphology of Tangut from the point of view of both Tangut texts and modern Qiangic languages, its closest living relatives. Modern Qiangic languages, especially Rgyalrong, have a very strict verbal template. In this article, we propose that Tangut also had a verbal template, which was probably the result of independent grammaticalization rather than a shared inheritance with Rgyalrong. Then, we discuss apparent counterexamples to the proposed template and argue that other explanations are possible to account for them. Finally, we demonstrate the (previously unnoticed) existence of verbal incorporation in Tangut.

 

本文从两个方面探讨西夏语动词的结构:西夏文文献和现代羌语支语言。所有的羌语支语言都有着非常严谨的动词模板,特别是嘉绒语。笔者认为,西夏语也有类似的动词模板。然而,与嘉绒语的动词结构相比,西夏的动词结构比较简单,而且前缀的顺序不相同。因此,西夏语的动词模板可能不是原始羌语支的特征,而是后起平行发展的结果。另外,在西夏文文献当中发现一些表面上违反动词模板的例子,本文将这些反例举出来并逐一加以解释。最后,本文证明西夏语有动词编插法的构词手段,这一现象在以前的研究中未见报导。

 

Keywords 关键词

Tangut 西夏语 Rgyalrong 嘉绒语 Japhug 茶堡话 Incorporation 编插法 Directional prefixes 趋向前缀 Templatic morphology 动词模板

 

Abstract 摘要
This paper deals with the vowel configurations of Shuangfeng, Taihe, and Xinhua dialects by using a method of format frequency transformation to arrive at vowel patterns. The comparason of the basic vowel patterns in the three dialects shows three models of the dialect contact: transition, overshot and reversing. The models of vowel pattern of the ancestor, the mixed and the target dialect are also discussed respectively. The vowel pattern of the mixed dialect (Xinhua dialect) has mixed features, and the vowels of the mixed dialect have characteristics of transition.

 

文章运用元音格局的方法,分析了双峰、泰和、新化三地方言的元音格局,并从中古汉语韵摄的角度比较了三地方言元音格局的异同,发现了方言接触中元音分布的三种模式:过渡、越位、反弹。混合方言新化话在元音格局上具有混合的特点,主要表现在其元音的“过渡”分布模式上。

 

Keywords 关键词

Xiang Dialect 湘语 Gan Dialect 赣语 Dialect contact 方言接触 Vowel pattern 元音格局

 

Abstract 摘要
This study tests a proposal made by Yuan (1998) in relation to the issue of parameter resetting in the interpretation of monomorphemic ziji and polymorphemic taziji by English speakers of L2 Chinese. The L2 learners perform like native speakers in acquiring the locality condition of polymorphemic taziji. However, results from the learners also indicate that while monomorphemic ziji can be locally and long-distantly bound in native speakers’ grammar, it cannot be locally bound in elementary and intermediate L2 learners’ grammar. This asymmetry exists at early stages of learning but seems to have disappeared in the later stages of acquisition. It is argued that the Full Transfer/ Full Access hypothesis under which Yuan subscribes may have contributed to the parameter resetting. However, it is also argued, judging from the apparent native-like performance by advanced L2 learners, that what appears to be a parameter resetting scenario is in fact an adjustment of L2 setting to match with the L1 setting; monomorphemic ziji may have been misanalysed as pronouns in English. The possibility that uninterpretable syntactic features not selected in primary language acquisition become unavailable to adult second language learners should not be ruled out; a theory held by Hawkins and Hattori (2006), and Tsimpli and Dimitrakopoulou (2007).

 

本研究测试Yuan在1998提出关于以中文为第二语言的英语母语人士对monomorphemic 自己(ziji)和 polymorphemic 他自己(taziji)以参数重设理论来解读。这些第二语言学习者对于polymorphemic他自己(taziji)在语言中出现的位置和中文母语人士对中文的使用相似。尽管如此,从第二语言学习者得到的研究结果也指出;monomorphemic 自己(ziji)可以出现在中文语法中的子句内和子句外。然而初学和中级学习者对于monomorphemic 自己(ziji)的使用却仅限于子句内。这种不对称的表现存在于语言习得的早期,但却会随着学习阶段增长而消失。Yuan所提出的全转移/全存取(Full Transfer / Ful Access )假设有可能应用在参数重设上。尽管如此,从第二语言学习者接近母语人士的表现,参数重设可能实际上是一种将第二语言重新调整以适应第一语言;monomorphemic 自己(ziji) 可能被误析为英文中的代名词。在成人第二语言习得过程中未能被解读的语句特质将变得不能被学会的可能性应被排除;特别是在Hawkins and Hattori (2006)和Tsimpli and Dimitrakopoulou (2007)。

 

Keywords 关键词

Binding 自己 Monomorphemic 他自己 Polymorphemic 参数重设理论 UG 第二语言重新调整 Partial Access 被误析 Embedded-clause 子句

Abstract 摘要
In general, English loanwords borrowed into Chinese are translated while English loanwords borrowed into Japanese and are transliterated. Previous researchers claim unanimously that the difference in loanword adaptation strategy stems from internal linguistic differences between Chinese and Japanese. I argue against a linguistic explanation by demonstrating that historically both languages have shown periods when the opposite approach (i.e., transliteration for Chinese and translation for Japanese) was predominant. I instead claim that social factors are the primary determinants of adaptation choice: specifically, Chinese and Japanese translate loanwords from English during periods of social distance from the west, and transliterate during periods of social closeness to the west.

 

大体来说,汉语的英语借词为意译,而日语的英语借词为音译。学者一致认为汉语与日语借词策略不同乃源自于语言系统内部的差异。本文中,作者对上述看法加以驳斥,并提出在历史上确实有汉语偏向音译,而日语偏向意译的时期。因此,作者提出社会因素才是借词策略的主要决定因素;更具体的说,与西方社会处于疏远关时,汉语和日语借词采用意译;反之当与西方社会亲善的时期,则采用音译。

 

Keywords 关键词

Loanwords 借词 Translation 意译 Transliteration 音译 Japanese 日语 Sociolinguistics 社会语言学

Review 书评

Abstract 摘要
Book review: Bilingualism, a hot research area concerning linguistics, psycholinguistics and cognitive sciences, is being investigated from both perceptual and productive aspects. Before we introduce and review this work on the bilingual children written by Virginia Yip and Stephen Matthews, we first examine some recent results on bilingual development in the early stage from perceptual aspect.

Abstract 摘要
Book review: This collection of papers is the product of a conference on historical change and language contact of languages and dialects of Southeast China, held in late 2008 at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, organized by the two editors. The conference brought together some 70 scholars from mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan. Twenty papers are included in this volume, with a forward by William Wang, editor of JCL, and a preface by Sameul Cheung outlining the rationale of the volume. The 20 papers deal with a wide range of issues on diachronic change and language contact of languages and dialects of this region. Particular emphasis is laid on the Wu dialect (5 papers) and Cantonese (6 papers); trailed by Min (3 papers) and Hakka (2 papers). There is a paper discussing the genetic affiliation of Shehua (畲話), followed by one on the Hui dialect. A rime change in Wuhan dialect is the subject of the penultimate paper, and the volume concludes with a paper on nasalization of zero-onsets in Chinese dialects. Below we discuss each subtopic in turn.

Abstract 摘要
This book, Computer processing of Asian spoken languages, is a milestone in the ongoing research on spoken language processing in Asia. It is not only a valuable record of the footprints of advance in this field, but also a handy index of rich speech resources that have been made available for linguistic research. This book includes eight chapters, which can be roughly grouped into four major parts: (1) a summary of phonological and writing systems in ten Asian languages; (2) a description of various speech corpora; (3) an introduction to the state-of-the-art technology in speech analysis, recognition and synthesis; (4) proposals of transcription systems and Romanization schemes for some Asian languages. This paper reviews this book from the linguistic perspective. Specifically, we look at how the progress in spoken language processing can inspire and nurture linguistic research on Asian languages. The utility of speech corpora and software for linguistic enquiries and analysis is discussed. Finally, we suggest connecting outcomes in spoken language processing with linguistic theories to deepen our understanding about the principles and mechanisms of human language.

Computer Processing of Asian Spoken Languages(亚洲口语的计算机处理)一书是亚洲口语处理领域的里程碑。该书不仅是这一领域前进足迹的宝贵记录,而且也是可用于语言学研究的语言资源的便利索引。全书共八章,四个主要部分:(1)十个亚洲语言语音特征和文字体系的概括;(2)多种口语语料库的描述;(3) 语音分析、识别与合成技术的简介;(4)可机读语音转写系统与罗马化方案。本文从语言学角度评介该书。具体来说,本文探讨口语处理领域取得的成果如何为语言学所用,丰富研究资源,激发研究灵感。为此,我们详细讨论了语料库与语音分析软件在语言学研究中的作用。最后,我们建议结合口语处理的成果与语言学理论,深化对语言机制和原理的理解。

Keywords 关键词

Asian languages 亚洲语言 Spoken language processing 口语处理 Language diversity 语言多样性 Corpus 语料库 Linguistic research 语言学研究

New Publication 出版消息

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