Journal of Chinese Linguistics Vol.41 – 2013

Volume 41, No 1

Article 文章

Abstract 摘要
Different accounts (Fang 2000; Dong 2006; Xu 2006; Xu 2008; et al.) of the optional use of locative preposition yu (於/于) in classical Chinese have been proposed. Yet there is still no agreement. This project proposed a new account via a statistical modeling method known as “recursive partitioning” to identify all the relevant factors correlated to the optional use of yu proposed previously. It is found that yu tends to follow verbs with high transitivity, which is opposite to Dong (2006) and Xu (2006). The historical development of Chinese is found to be the second most significant constraint: yu is less frequently used especially after the time of Shuihu Quanzhuan. In addition, yu tends to occur with a following monosyllabic NP. Other factors such as focus, zhi (之)-nominalization and prosody are found statistically insignificant. The results of this paper will serve as a quantitative base for further research on the grammatical function of yu.

有关制约古代汉语地点介词 “於/于” 应用的种种条件,在学术界(方平权(2000),董秀芳(2006),Xu(2006),许敏云(2008)等)有很多不同的说法,至今尚未有定论。 本文通过对历史语料进行“递归分区” 的分析,对所有现行相关的解释进行了测试,用统计学的手段,去伪存真。本文发现在古代汉语中,“於/于”的使用或省略首先与动词的及物性相关。 高及物动词倾向于使用“於/于”来引出地点名词,而低及物动词则不是如此。该结果刚好与董(2006)和Xu(2006)相悖。汉语历史时期是第二个重要影响因素。随着汉语的历史发展,尤其是在《水浒全传》以及之后的文献中,“於/于”使用频率逐步减少。另外一个比较重要的因素是地点名词的音节数,单音节地点名词倾向于用“於/于”引出。但是,用强调、抽象地点名词、韵律等等说法来解释 “於/于” 的相关用法,统计测试结果表明可能是没有科学依据的。本文提供的数据为进一步研究“於/于”在历史文献中的语法功能,建立了一个具有科学依据的基础。

 

Keywords 关键词

Locative preposition yu 地点介词 “於/于” Modeling of recursive partitioning 递归分区统计分析法

Abstract 摘要
According to Tsou (1978), post-1949 Hong Kong has evolved from a multi-dialectal society to a Cantonese-speaking society, and that not only is the scale of the shift relatively big, its pace is also unusually fast. In addition there appears to be significant differences in the rate of shift among the four dialect groups identified in the study. However a validation of Tsou’s observations and a more precise estimation of the pace and scale of the shift have been hampered by (1) the inherent constraints of census data used by Tsou, (2) the loose and inconsistent use of dialect-group labels and (3) the absence of a direct study of the groups concerned. This paper reports the findings of our attempts to address these issues via documentary (census and historical) evidence, and a sociolinguistic survey conducted from 2005-07 among members of the groups concerned. Specifically, findings from our study of the documentary evidence largely corroborate Tsou’s observations as they indicate that (1) Cantonese-speakers’ share of the population increased from somewhere between 51.8% and 57.2% circa 1949 to 88.2% in 1971; (2) a significant differential rate in the groups’ shift to Cantonese is in evidence albeit the number of dialect groups involved should be seven instead of the aforementioned four. Findings of our sociolinguistic survey of six of the seven groups indicate that (1) bilingualism is in evidence among most immigrant (G-0) interviewees, suggesting the shift is already in progress among them; (2) the shift to Cantonese with the corresponding loss of native-tongue proficiency is relatively complete among most G-1 and G-2 interviewees but (3) there are sufficient difference in native-tongue retention among the groups to rank them according to this ability in descending order as follows: Weitou, Kejia, Minnan, Chaozhou, Siyi and Shanghainese. Moreover the survey data indicate that (4) the shift took place with a relative absence of linguism, and that (5) it might have been facilitated by an apparent multiplicity in the number of factors that the survey participants use to define their nationality. Initial analysis of the data also indicates that the groups’ settlement patterns might contribute to the differential rate of shift. It is further observed that Cantonese is not indigenous to Hong Kong, and that this shift may develop in tandem with the emergence of the Hong Kong identity. The shift may also be unique in the context of Modern China as it involves the replacement of the native tongues of both indigenous and immigrant populations by another non-indigenous dialect-group of the same nationality.

根据邹嘉彦(1978)的观察,香港在1949年后,由一个多方言的社会,演变成为一个广州话为主的社会。这个演变的规模不仅较大,发展亦比较迅速。他同时认为他所研究的四个方言族群之间,方言转移的速度各有不同。但是如要考证邹氏这些观点,以及较准确评估这个转移的规模和步伐,则往往受到以下条件的限制:(1) 被邹氏大量采用的人口普查资料的内在局限, (2) 过往界定方言族群的标准以及标签比较宽松和不划一,(3) 对涉及的方言族群缺乏直接研究。为此,本文利用文献数据(人口普查及历史资料),以及一项在2005-2007年间,对各个有关族群成员进行的社会语言学调查,重新探讨了这个课题。根据我们对文献数据的研究显示,邹氏的有关观察大致正确。我们同时观察到:(1)操广州话的人口,由1949年前后的51.8%至57.2%之间,上升到1971年的88.2%,(2)不同方言族群转移到广州话的速度有明显的差异,但涉及的族群数目,应该是七个而不是前述的四个。我们对七个有关族群中的六个进行了社会语言学调查,发现(1)大多数移民(G-0)受访者已经普遍操双语,显示转移早在他们这一代已经开始;(2) 广州话已经是大多数G-1及G-2的母语,他们亦同时失去用本族方言沟通的能力;但是(3) 各个族群对本族方言的保留能力,也有明显的差异,由强至弱的排列为:围头话、客家话、闽南话、潮州话、四邑话和上海话。此外,我们的研究资料显示,(4) 转移不受到语言中心主义的影响,而(5) 这可能是由于受访者界定个人身份时,母语只是其中的一个因素。另外初步的分析指出,转移的速度差异与族群的居住模式有关。我们同时强调广州话并非香港本土语言,并且认为这个转移与香港身份的浮现是同步衍生。这个转移牵涉到一个非本土的方言取代了同宗族的本土和非本土方言,成为地方的主要方言。我们相信同样的现象,不容易在现代中国其他地方找得到。

 

Keywords 关键词

Cantonese Hong Kong & Chinese identity 香港人以及中国人身份认同 Language shift & maintenance 语言维系与转移 Linguism 语言中心主义 Urban bilingualism Sociolinguistics 城市双语现象 广州话

Abstract 摘要
Embodied cognition has been supported by a wide body of evidence from different areas of research, including language. However, despite the fact that the spontaneous use of hands and arms along with speech is indispensable and prevalent in daily communication, and the neural connection between speech and gesture is supported by numerous studies, little evidence from gesture has been provided in support of the embodiment of conceptual knowledge. The present study provides visible and empirical evidence to show that gestures in conversational interaction not only bear out embodiment in language, but also embodiment in gesture. The knowledge embodied in gesture is grounded in bodily and perceptual experiences situated in people’s habitual interaction in recurrent socio-cultural activities or in personal incidences. Among the various perspectives to incorporating the body, a situation, the world, and interaction in the study of the mind, the independent evidence from the gestural modality can reveal the situated and dynamic aspects of cognition.

以身体、感知、情境、活动、互动为本之认知观点获得许多研究证据的支持,包括语言的证据。在日常的语言使用中,人们说话时会自然的使用手势来表达意义;很多研究证据也显示语言和手势有着紧密的脑神经连结。因此,除了语言,手势同样能表达以身体、感知、情境、活动、互动为本的认知概念。本研究提供日常会话中自然又看得到的手势使用,支持认知概念是来自于人们在日常的社会/文化活动或个人活动中的身体、感知、情境、和互动经验。手势的证据也能显示认知的情境性和动态性。

 

Keywords 关键词

Gesture Language 手势语言 Situated Aspect of Cognition 认知的情境性 Dynamic Aspect of Cognition 认知的动态性

Abstract 摘要
Huang, Li & Li (2009) claim that (i) there exists in Chinese a type of bei constructions, the so-called unbounded or long-distance passives, in which the pre-bei patient can be indefinitely long from the site from which it is interpreted; (ii) the unbounded or long-distance dependency relation in the bei construction is somewhat likely to exist in the ba construction. By revisiting the structural and semantic properties of the bei construction, I show that Huang, Li & Li’s examples are not really attested. I argue that there are two problems with Huang, Li & Li’s claim about unbounded passives: (i) it ignores the fundamental function of passivization; (ii) it mistakenly equates passivization with topicalization. I also point out that Huang, Li & Li’s invention of the ill-formed unbounded passives reveals that interpretive factors may sometimes play a crucial role in the linguistic judgments involving the Chinese language.

黄正德、李艳慧和李亚非在其合著的《汉语句法》(2009) 一书里声称,“被”字句存在着长距离的依存关系,这种长距离的依存关系在“把”字句中也可能存在。本文在全面描述“被”字结构的语义与结构属性的基础上指出,(a)所谓的长距离“被”字句无论是在权威的汉语语法著作、有重要影响的汉语被动句研究文献和目前有较大影响的中文语料库中都鲜有出现,因此并不像作者所说的具有可观察性;(b)作者所提供的长距离“被”字句的病因是它将被动化结构等同于主题化结构,同时忽略了汉语“被”字句强调受事主语所受影响及淡化施事者的语法功能;(c)作者对不合法的长距离“被”字句和“把”字句的接受表明,理解因素在对汉语句子可接受性的判断中有时起着相当大的作用。

 

Keywords 关键词

Bei construction “被”字结构 Ba construction “把”字结构 Unbounded dependency 长距离依存关系 Comprehensibility 可理解性

Abstract 摘要
This article discusses the conditions, functions and possible suffixes of the predicate inflection from a semantic and grammatical point of view in Yancheng dialect, spoken in Central China Henan province. The predicates in Yancheng undergo rime change depending on time frame and grammatical constraints. Based on the comparison between the distribution of the rime-changing verbs and corresponding non-rime-changing verbs, three functions of the predicate rime allomorphy are concluded: (1) to express the event realized, (2) to state a static condition lasting, (3) to denote the direction of an action. Each of the functions can be traced to the fusion of the preceding predicates and different grammatical elements, le1 and le2 (了1和了2), zhed (着d) and dao or zai (到或在) respectively. Furthermore, this article is also trying to address some general issues on predicate inflection, such as the motivation, mechanism and developmental tendency, in Chinese dialects.

本文穷尽考察了郾城方言动词变韵的条件,发现郾城方言动词变韵受到时态和句法条件的制约:在过去时中,只有句子中包含一个与“量”有关的词或短语时,动词才可以变韵;在现在时中,只有在前接成分表示确定的处所时动词才可以变韵;在将来时中,只有后接成分表示确定的“矢量”时,动词才可以变韵。在此基础上,考察变韵动词和相应的不变韵动词的分布环境,从而判定动词变韵的三种功能:事件实现、状态持续和动作矢量。表示事件实现的动词变韵可能的合音后缀是“了1+了2”;表示状态持续的动词变韵可能的合音后缀是“着d”;表示动作矢量的动词变韵可能的合音后缀是“到”或“在”。最后提出郾城方言存在一种新的体标记系统,并根据各方言点动词变韵的共同表现和分布差异,探讨汉语方言动词变韵的外部驱动、内部机制和可能的发展趋势。

 

Keywords 关键词

Verb rime change 动词变韵 Event realized 事件实现 Condition lasting 状态持续 Action vector 句法条件 Suffix Aspect 动作矢量

Abstract 摘要
Temporal relations, such duration, aspect, frequency, time point and sequence as expressions, describe the relationships between temporal elements and events in complex knowledge networks. Logical compatibility between temporal elements and different types of events has a strong influence on the semantic interpretation and grammaticality of sentences. It is one of the most complicated, frequently used, but least understood concepts in linguistics. In this paper, we focus on durations, and show that syntactic structures (construction patterns) make fine-grained distinctions between durations. We also explain their common functionalities and differences based on semantic harmony. In addition, we show that the usage of durations is affected primarily by their constructional meanings and the types of collocated events; and constructional meaning of durations is main factor which affect the usage of durations. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the morpho-syntactic structure of durations also reduces the flexibility of their usage. We list four types of morpho-syntactic structures of duration expressions, and discuss the constraints on their usage. Based on our observations, we conclude that the properness of a sentence depends on an ordering of the lexical words such that the semantics, syntax, and morphology of the sentence are in harmony.

时间关系包括时貌、时点、时段、频率及序列等等,它们在复杂的知识网络中,被用来表达事件和时间成分之间的关系。时间成分与事件类型的合理搭配对语义的理解以及语法的正确性影响很大,这个既复杂又经常出现的语言学课题,尚未有从语义切入的完备分析。在本文中,我们针对时间关系中的时段成分分析其用法,区别出时段词的细致语义,说明它们因结构语义而产生的不同用法。我们还指出时段词所搭配的事件类型和语义内涵是影响它们用法的主要因素。并发现时段的成分结构也影响了它的用法,我们共列出四种时段成分所衍生的组成形式,并讨论其语义及用法限制。最终我们归纳认为句子的完备性须符合语义、语法和词构的语境和谐律。

 

Keywords 关键词

Semantic harmony 语境和谐律 Constructional meaning 结构语义 Durations 时段 Temporal relation 时间关系

Abstract 摘要
This research focuses on the prosodic features of utterances where two Chinese utterance-final particles (UFPs) a and ne may occur. The study investigated these discourse markers through an approach that integrated phonetic analysis into characteristics and distributions of these UFPs. Acoustic properties and prosodic environments were examined in addition to discourse contexts of these UFPs. Prosodic correlates, such as pitch and duration were measured to investigate the relationship between prosodic features and discourse functions. This study also assessed the effectiveness of prosodic features in speech perception. Our results suggested that changes of prosodic characteristics triggered by UFPs in different contexts may be interpreted as contexts’ adaptation to the presence or omission of a UFP; also that listeners relied on enhanced prosodic features to perceive moods carried by UFPs. We concluded that A and NE carry different pragmatic and discourse functions, which can also be realized by prosodic correlates when they are not present in discourse.

以往对汉语句末助词的研究主要集中在语篇及语用的领域,对其韵律特征的研究则相对较少。本文首先探讨了两个常用语末助词“啊”和“呢”在书面语一个特定相同结构中的不同功能,指出两词在语气表达以及语篇发展上作用有细微但显著的不同。其次,本研究运用声学分析和语音感知的方法比较了两词及其语境在口语中的韵律表征。我们发现语篇的韵律特征在有无“啊”和“呢”的情况下有较显著区别,而且这些区别能够帮助听话人辨识语气。因此本文认为“啊”与“呢”能够传递语气,并且能够影响其语境的韵律。当语篇中无语气词时,韵律表征则能在一定程度上代替行使语气功能。

 

Keywords 关键词

Utterance-final particles—a, ne 句末助词—”啊”, “呢” Prosody 韵律表征 Discourse analysis 语篇分析 Putonghua 普通话 Speech perception 话语感知

Abstract 摘要
This paper explores the polyfunctionality of kio3 叫 in Niri7 kiann3 ki3 in Li Jing Ji 荔鏡記 (1522-1566 AD), a Ming script of play written in Southern Min. Based on FrameNet (Fillmore, Johnson, and Petruck 2003) it establishes a set of frames to capture the related senses of kio3 叫. Communication frame featuring kio3 叫 constitutes the core in a family of related frames with inheritance relationship such as counterfactive frame, name conferral frame and causation frame. It encompasses a list of roles such as speaker, addressee, message, topic, medium, and code in the framework of frame semantics (Johnson and Fillmore 2000). The paper aims at fleshing out interrelated semantic aspects of kio3 叫 induced by patterns of constructions. A cross-linguistic comparison of kio3 叫 in Southern Min and call in English yields the finding that synonyms in these two languages share partial common grounds, but there are also divergences that can only be explained on historical grounds.

本文探讨明代闽南语戏文荔镜记(西元1522-1566) 中“叫” 的多功能性。文中根据 Fillmore, Johnson, and Petruck (2003) 框架网络建立一套框架来捕捉“叫” 的相关语意。“叫”的沟通框架形成相关框架家族的核心,这些框架包括悖实框架、命名框架、致使框架,彼此间有传承的关系。沟通事件涵盖框架语意理论 (Johnson and Fillmore 2000)中说者、听者、信息内容、话题、凭借、语码等角色。主文将就“叫”的各类构式所引发的相关语意面相作深入的阐明。此外,透过闽南语“叫”和英语 call的比较,得知这两个同义词虽有部分雷同处,闽南语所反映的特异性只能从历史的演变角度来解释。

 

Keywords 关键词

Polyfunctionality 多功能 Communication 沟通 FrameNet 框架网络 Southern Min 闽南语

Abstract 摘要
This paper is intended to explore the semantic processing of unambiguous noun, unambiguous verb and verb-noun ambiguous word in Mandarin Chinese by using event-related potentials (ERP). The experiment, which was conducted in the lexical decision task, contained four sets of stimuli: disyllabic unambiguous nouns (UN), unambiguous verbs (UV), verb-biased (V-VN) and noun-biased (N-VN) verb-noun ambiguous words. The results showed that the amplitude values of P2 and N400 corresponding to the semantic processing were greater for UN and UV than for V-VN and N-VN and UN elicited greater P2 and N400 than UV. Furthermore, the results indicated that the N400 component included a frontal “imagistically sensitive N400” and a posterior “linguistically sensitive N400”. The amplitudes of N400 activated by UN and UV were more negative than those of V-VN and N-VN on the frontal electrodes because UN and UV were more concrete than V-VN and N-VN. Meanwhile, N400 on the posterior scalp sites was related to semantic features. UN that designated men and things elicited higher N400 than UV, V-VN and N-VN; UV that referred to action and behaviors elicited higher N400 than V-VN and N-VN; V-VN and N-VN that referred to behaviors and designated event elicited smaller N400 values. Besides, N-VN elicited a LPC component that was the reflection of confidence in the decision-making process, with more positive magnitude than UN, UV and V-VN. It indicated that the decision confidence of N-VN was greater than that of UN, UV and V-VN because N-VN was more notable in semantic activation. V-VN that had multiple meanings elicited higher LPC than UN and UV on some electrodes, indicating that the decision confidence was higher for V-VN than for UN and UV. Since both UN and VN had a single meaning, they were less notable in semantic activation, which resulted in less decision confidence and lower LPC amplitudes. The results of LPC reflected the continuum of grammatical classes as “UV—V-VN—N-VN—UN’, which provided the supporting evidence for the conformance of syntax level and semantic level.

本文运用ERP技术,通过词汇判断任务,对汉语双音节名词、动词和动名兼类词的语义加工机制进行了研究。实验结果显示,名词、动词和动名兼类词在P2、N400和LPC上都存在差 异。P2 和N400体现了名词、动词和动名兼类词的语义差异。N400还可以进一步分为前部脑区分布的N400和后部脑区分布的N400。其中,前部脑区分布的N400主要与具体性有关,名 词和动词比动名兼类词更加具体,所以它们的N400波幅比动名兼类词的更大;后部脑区分布的N400主要与语义特征有关,指称人和事物的名词N400波幅最大,表示动作和行为的动 词N400波幅较小,表示行为和指称活动的动名兼类词N400波幅最小。LPC体现词汇判断时的确定性。偏(名)的语义激活最多,判断的确定性较高,其LPC波幅最大;偏(动)的语 义激活较多,判断的确定性高于名词和动词,其LPC波幅较大;名词和动词只激活单一语义,最不容易判断,其LPC最小。名词、动词、偏(动)和偏(名)在LPC上的关系,可反映 “动词-偏(动)-偏(名)-名词”这个体现句法功能的连续统,说明语言的句法层面与语义层面是对应一致的。

 

Keywords 关键词

Unambiguous noun 名词 Unambiguous verb 动词 Verb-noun ambiguous words 动名兼类词 Semantic processing 语义加工 ERP 事件相关电位

Memoriam 悼念

Abstract 摘要
In this paper we briefly review the life and career of Professor Jerry L. Norman and then allow him to tell us in his own words his major views and perspectives on the historical development of Chinese, and his hopes for the ways these might be probed and elucidated by future generations of Chinese dialectologists and historical linguists.

本文将简单地介绍名语言学和汉学家罗杰瑞先生的生平与学术成就。并依罗氏书信来阐述其对汉语史的看法,以及其对汉语历史语言学的展望。

 

Keywords 关键词

Jerry Norman 罗杰瑞

Report 报告

Abstract 摘要
The Conference in Evolutionary Linguistics (CIEL), 2012, jointly organized by the Center for Chinese Linguistics and the Department of Chinese Language and Literature, Peking University, took place on November 9-11, 2012. A total of 46 speakers from six different countries took part in this international conference.

 

报告:2012 年演化语言学会议

Volume 41, No 2

Article 文章

Abstract 摘要
Many Western readers currently accept an account of the early evolution of Chinese script due to William Boltz, according to whom all graphs other than simple pictographs originated as phonetic–semantic compounds. This contrasts with the traditional Chinese account of 六書 ‘six writings’, according to which some graphs were compounds of separate elements each chosen for their meaning rather than their sound. This paper argues that (while the ‘six writings’ theory had flaws) with respect to that central issue it is correct, and Boltz is mistaken.

在西方学界,人们普遍接受 William Boltz 关于汉字早期发展的理论。 Boltz 认为除了象形字以外,所有其他的汉字都应该源于形声字。Boltz 的理论同传统的六书理论是相抵触的。在许慎的六书理论中,有一组汉字,也就是许慎所定义的会意字,是由两个或两个以上的符号因为其各自代表的意义而结合起来所形成的。 在这篇论文中,我们将证明在会意字这个汉字范畴上,六书理论是正确的,尽管其理论有其自身的缺陷,而Boltz的理论是错误的。

 

Keywords 关键词

Compound ideographs hui yi 会意 Phonetic–semantic compounds 形声 Six writings 六书

Abstract 摘要
This paper argues for an account of Chinese syntactic structure that takes both structure and function into consideration. It argues that Chinese syntax can be given a rather neat and natural account if we take iconicity and information status into account and if we look at the following three orders separately: the order of the head and its NP or clause complements, the order of the head and its PP complements, and the order of the head and the adjuncts. It points out that Chinese is head-initial in terms of the order of the head and its NP or clause complement. However, when the complement is a PP, it typically precedes the head except that it can also occur after the head if such an ordering conforms to the unfolding of the event in the real world. As for the order of the head and the adjuncts, Chinese is head-final except when the adjunct is used to provide new information about degree or result or new (evaluative) information in terms of quality or quantity.

本文提出,考察汉语句法结构时要兼顾结构和功能。文章认为,如果把象似性和信息状态考虑进去而且从以下三个方面来进行考察,我们对汉语句法结构就可以有一个比较工整而自然的描述和解释。本文指出,当补足语是名词短语或从句时,核心在前,补足语在后。当补足语是介词短语时,一般情况下补足语在前,核心在后,但介词补足语也可以居后,只要这样的语序是与事件的展开相一致的。最后一个方面是核心和附加语的顺序。文章认为,在这一方面,汉语是附加语在前,核心在后,除非附加语是用来提供诸如以下方面的新信息的:程度、结果,或对质或量方面的评述。

 

Keywords 关键词

Chinese phrase structure 汉语短语结构 Chinese syntactic structure 汉语句法结构 Head-initial 核心在前 Head-final 核心在后 Complement 补足语 Adjunct 附加语

Abstract 摘要
This study aimed to prove that counterfactual reasoning was accessible without contextual cues in Chinese, further demonstrating developmental differences in mastering counterfactuality in this language. This study challenged the traditional view that counterfactual thinking is exclusively available through discourse in conversational Chinese due to the lack of a subjunctive mood. It was argued that without morphological inflections, Chinese counterfactual reasoning could be reached through unique coercive tactics with negative linguistic expressions. The sentence-verification paradigm (Carpenter and Just, 1975) was employed to probe counterfactual comprehension by comparing mental representations of contrary-to-fact sentences. It was predicted that successful counterfactual reasoning would be observed in these coercions. Meaning-based representations would be formed in mental models, rather than structural ones. Because of the discrepancy between linguistic form and meaning in counterfactuals, extra time was required to process counterfactual clauses. The results confirmed the predictions. It was concluded that the same cognitive concept is reached in distinct linguistic ways. Developmental differences in mastering Chinese counterfactual reasoning were observed, and the function of negation in Chinese counterfactuals was discussed.

本篇论文研究主旨以心理语言学实验法找到处理中文假设语气的证据,论证说明以中文为母语的使用者具有不需言谈脉络线索的推理能力,此外,研究也找到推理能力在发展上的差异。传统观点认为由于中文缺乏虚拟语气的构词句法结构,与过去事实相反假设语气思维只在具有充足推理线索的言谈会话中出现,这篇研究透过词汇与句法结合,加上否定词的使用,成功表达与过去事实相反的推理语意。实验采用语句确认典范(Carpenter and Just, 1975)透过比较语句的心智表征测试与过去事实相反语气的理解。研究预期受试者完全了解与过去事实相反的假设语气意义,形成以语意为基础的心智表征而非语法结构为主的表征,且处理与过去事实相反假设语气的反应时间比起表达事实的语句更长。得到的结果与预期相符,说明相同的认知行为可以藉由不同的语言表达方式达成,更进一步由不同年龄层受试者证明中文与过去事实相反假设语气语句处理的差异。文中对中文否定词在假设语气中的功能也有进一步的讨论。

 

Keywords 关键词

Reasoning development推理发展 Chinese counterfactuals 与过去事实相反假设语气 Logical inferences 逻辑推论 Mental operation 心智运作 Negation 否定词

Abstract 摘要
In this paper we attempt to study the diminutive word con ‘offspring’ in Vietnamese based on the grammaticalization and phonological cycle involving the diminutive words in Min dialects. The original meaning of con is ‘offspring’ (con trai ‘sons’, con gái ‘daughters’); then its use was generalized to cover the young of an animal (heo con ‘ a little pig’, bò con ‘a calf’, cá con ‘a small fish’ ) and then it was further expanded to cover some small-sized plants (con rau ‘a tender shoot’). From the above meanings, con continued to expand its use as a diminutive word to refer to small-sized things, the relatives, and finally it becomes a noun-marker. Along the way, some diminutive words marked by con also picked up attitudinal meanings such as liking or disliking. Phonetically, con just has the first two stages. The affix can be reduced to [ɔŋ] or [ŋ] just like its counterpart in some of Min dialects. For example, in southern and middle Vietnam, when people say Nhìn con heo con kia dễ thương chưa kìa ‘Look! The little pig is so cute,’ the noun marker (prefix) is often reduced from [kɔŋ] to [ɔŋ] or [ŋ]. Through concrete examples of Vietnamese con, we would demonstrate preliminarily that the notion of grammaticalization cycle with some modification can be applied in the description of the changes that took place in the evolution of the diminutive marker con in Vietnamese.

本文以小称词语法化轮回的架构研究越南语的小称词“con”。 “con”本义为“孩子” (con trai ‘儿子’、con gái ‘女儿’),接着泛指到动物后代(heo con ‘小猪’、 bò con ‘小牛’、cá con ‘小鱼’ )及小型植物(con rau ‘嫩芽’) 。后来“con”变成小称词,可用来指细小的物体或亲属称谓,最后则变成名词标志。有些带“con”的小称词并有喜好或厌恶的感情色彩。“con” 的语音演变只有两个阶段,可缩减为[ɔŋ]或[ŋ]词缀。例如在越南中部及南部,当人们说Nhìn con heo con kia dễ thương chưa kìa (你看!这只小猪多可爱啊!)时,多数情况下名词标志(前缀)会由[kɔŋ]缩减为[ɔŋ]或[ŋ]。藉由越南语“con”的具体例证,我们归结仅需小幅的修正,语法化轮回的架构便可用来描述越南语小称标志“con”的演化过程。

 

Keywords 关键词

Diminutive 小称 Vietnamese 越南语 Min dialects 闽语 Grammaticalization cycle 语法化轮回

Abstract 摘要
Do Mandarin and English speakers think about time differently? The seminal work by Boroditsky (2001) claimed they do, but the claim did not stand in three failed replications (Chen 2007; January and Kako 2007; Tse and Altarriba 2008). Recently, new data from different tasks were interpreted as further support of the claim (Boroditsky, Fuhrman and McCormick, 2011; Fuhrman et al. 2011). We evaluate the claim, its logical ground, and the existing evidence, including results from the original spatial priming task, the spatial projection (of temporal events) task, and the temporal judgment task. A reasonable conclusion from this line of research is that there might be a relationship between temporal cognition and specific language experience, but the relationship is a complex one which varies with the task, the language of instructions, the cultural shade of the materials, the location of test, the nature and extent of bilingualism, in addition to language and directionality of print. Some of the tasks are easier to replicate than others, and when replicable, the evidence they yield requires careful evaluations, interpretations, and qualifications. Under scrutiny, the evidence appears weak that Mandarin and English speakers think about time in a categorically different way because they use spatial metaphors differently to express time.

说华语和说英语者用不同方式思考时间吗?Boroditsky (2001)的研究宣称是的,但是她的研究结果无法被复制(Chen 2007; January and Kako 2007; Tse and Altarriba 2008),因此她的说法也难以成立。最近,Boroditsky与其同僚(Boroditsky, Fuhrman and McCormick 2011; Fuhrman et al. 2011)以不同的实验任务取得新的证据,再次宣称说华语和说英语者是用不同的方式思考时间。我们详细检视她原始的说法、其逻辑依据、以及来自空间促发、 空间投射、和时间判断等实验任务的相关证据。一个合理的结论是,时间的认知与特定的语言经验或许存有某种关系,可是这种关系很复杂,会受到实验任务、实验 指导语所使用的语言、实验材料的文化色彩、实验的地点、实验参与者双语的性质与程度、以及文字的书写方向等的影响。有些实验任务容易获得重复的结果,有些 则不易;而能复制的结果仍须有审慎的评估与解释才能确知其因是否和语言有关。综合而言,Boroditsky宣称说华语和说英语者因为使用的空间隐喻词不 同而用不同的方式思考时间,这样的说法所拥有的证据是相当薄弱的。

 

Keywords 关键词

Linguistic relativity 语言相对论 Temporal reasoning 时间推理 Artifacts 人造物

Abstract 摘要
Names of body parts have an extremely important value not only in historical linguistics, but also in grammar of which they are the cognitive basis. Some of the concept of spatial orientation is the result of extension of body-parts. Similarly, many names of things have a relationship with names of body-parts. By examining words of spatial orientation and time, we conclude that Hakka has zoomorphic model and anthropomorphic model in space and time cognition, but She used human model and astronomical reference to understand the spatial orientation, and we also found that there are some problems in studying etymology. By examining some of the names of things, we identified that there are many similarities when She and the Hakka naming things. They are guided by these mechanisms—- Top-down strategy , Part-to-whole strategy and sometimes refer to the shape of things, character, function and other factors. We point out that the classification and the naming of things of Hakka is different from the nomenclature and classification of systematic biology. It is influenced by traditional culture, following indigenous mechanisms in classification and naming of things. There are similarities and differences of the cognitive models obtained by studying body-part names of Hakka and She. They reflected the same characteristics and also unique features of cognition of human beings. The unique features confirm the Sapir – Whorf Hypothesis.

身体部位的名称不仅在历史语言学中有极其重要的价值,而且也是语法的认知基础,有些空间方位的概念是由身体部位推而广之的。同样,人类对很多事物的命名和人体部位名称有关。考察客家话和畲话以及畲语中的空间方位词、部分时间词,确定客家对空间方位和时间的认知既包括 “动物模型”也包括“人体模型”,畲族用“人体模型”及“天体参照”来认识空间方位。从身体名称考察出的客家和畲族的认知思维习惯有同也有异,体现了人类认知思维的共性和个性。个性印证了“萨丕尔-沃尔夫假说”。

 

Keywords 关键词

Body-parts 人体名称 Spatial orientation 空间方位 Nomenclature命名 Cognitive models 认知模型 Sapir – Whorf Hypothesis 萨丕尔-沃尔夫假说

Abstract 摘要
This article discusses the aspectual marker zhe in the historical texts of Chinese and Wu dialects. Zhe was an imperfective marker in the history of Chinese and was never used as a perfective marker. Historically, zhe called as perfective marker was actually still a phase complement of lexical compound, but not a grammatical perfective marker in the Song and Yuan dynasties. Whereas the aspectual marker zhe were imperfective and perfective markers and a complement marker of state in the historical texts of Wu dialects. The perfective developed from its imperfective; i.e., a phase complement into imperfective, then from imperfective into perfective. The article further proposes that the context from which the aspectual marker zhe was induced is an adverbial clause.

本文讨论在汉语史和吴方言史中有关动词后面体标记(aspectual marker)“着”的语法化问题。一般地,对于汉语史中体标记“着”的出现,人们认为是由状态补语虚化为非完成体(imperfective)(包括持 续和进行),由结果补语虚化为完成体(perfective)的结果。本文的硏究表明,此“着”在近代汉语中语法化而成为非完成体,人们通常所指的宋元时 期的“完成体”,其实只不过是含完成语义的词汇体(aktionsart),幷不是语法体(grammatical aspects)。而在吴方言史中,“着”的语法化过程,幷不是完成体和非完成体同时产生,而是先从动相补语发展到非完成体(表持续),再从非完成体发展 到完成体和状态补语标记的过程。以此为据,本文进而认为,体标记“着”的产生源于复句前一小句。

 

Keywords 关键词

zhe 着 Aspectual Marker 体标记 History of Chinese and Wu Dialects 汉语史和吴方言史 Grammaticalization 语法化 Typology 类型学 着 Aspectual Marker 体标记 History of Chinese and Wu Dialects 汉语史和吴方言史 Grammaticalization 语法化 Typology 类型学

Abstract 摘要
Based on the inner relationship of the various strata within the eastern Min Dialects, this essay tries to reanalyze the phonological system of Zhouning Dialect (one of the eastern Min Dialects) and its phonological variation pattern through detailed analysis of all the types of phonological variation. There are two major types of finals shift in Zhongning dialect. The first type is typical of five tones, that is, Yangping (阳平), Yinqu (阴去), Yangqu (阳去), Yinru (阴入) and Yangru (阳入). In this type, the essential vowel will change from the high one to a lower one. The second type is only seen when the tone is Shangsheng (上声). In this type the variation of the essential vowel takes on complicated features.

本文通过闽东话内部的层次系联,重新分析周宁话的音系,论证周宁话的变韵模式,并逐一分析各个变韵的音类。周宁话的变韵主要有两个类型:第一类型发生在阳平、阴去、阳去、阴入、阳入五个调类,韵腹为高元音的音类要变韵为较低的元音。第二类型的变韵发生在上声调,韵腹的演变较为复杂。

 

Keywords 关键词

Zhouning dialect 周宁话 Phonological variation 变韵 Types 类型 Phonological category 音类

Abstract 摘要
Following publication of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, evidence has accumulated for the influence of language experience on perception. There are thousands of languages in the world which make use of pitch patterns to construct words much as vowels and consonants are used, among which Mandarin (a.k.a. Putonghua) is a typical tone language. This study examines the effect of language experience (tone language experience vs. nontone language experience) on non-linguistic pitch perception. First, we show a significantly higher prevalence of absolute pitch among native tone-language-speaking music students than among nontone-language-speaking music students. Moreover, we show that language experience shapes the perception of tone sweeps, extending the influence of language prototypes from the linguistic domain to the non-linguistic domain. Taken together, these results demonstrate that language experience affects auditory perception, and so provide evidence for the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis in the auditory modality.

随着萨皮尔–沃尔夫假说的提出,语言经验影响感知已经累积了许多证据。世界上有几千种语言像利用元音和辅音一样利用音高模式来构词。其中,普通话就是一种典型的声调语言。本研究考察语言经验(声调语言经验对比非声调语言经验)对非语言音高感知的影响。首先,我们发现母语为声调语言的学习音乐的学生要比同等的母语为非声调语言的学习音乐的学生的绝对音高能力显著地好。此外,语言经验也影响对纯音扫描的感知,把语言经验对音高感知的影响力拓展到非语言且非熟悉范畴。总而言之,这些结果表明语言经验也影响一般听觉感知,进而为萨皮尔–沃尔夫假说提供了听觉模态方面的证据。

 

Keywords 关键词

Absolute pitch 绝对音高 Tone sweep 纯音扫描 Sapir-Whorf hypothesis 萨皮尔–沃尔夫假说 Pitch perception 音高感知 Tone language 声调语言

Review 书评

Abstract 摘要
By briefly reviewing the sixty-three translated papers in Brain and Language Cognition, we summarize three popular research topics concerning brain and language cognition, including: (i) locating neural bases/processes of language cognition using neuroimaging technologies; (ii) comparing language abilities with other cognitive competences; and (iii) pinpointing neural circuitries processing semantics, phonology, and logographs of Chinese. Meanwhile, we advocate another five topics that might interest Chinese scholars in this field, including: (i) examining brain structures and language functions from perspectives of complex systems and networks; (ii) analyzing time-frequency responses of the human brain toward speech stimuli; (iii) studying tone processing in the human brain; (iv) examining cognitive processes involved in speech production; and (v) designing brain-computer interface facilities to aid needed people.

随着《认知科学》期刊的创立(1977年)和美国认知科学协会的成立(1978年),认知科学在20世纪70年代中期发展成一个成熟、独立的学科。同时,随着脑成像技术的进步,和美国前总统布什把20世纪最后10年定为“脑的10年”(Decade of the Brain)(1989年),脑科学研究在这一时期也取得了突破性进展,并与认知科学更加紧密相连。这些都为全面研究脑与语言的关系以揭示人类和语言的本质奠定了坚实的科研基础。目前,脑与语言认知方面的研究在西方学术界越来越受重视,其成果也越来越多的出现在国际重要的认知学、语言学和跨学科期刊。反观国内,这类研究才刚刚起步,尚未得到广泛重视,全国性认知会议也仅召开过几届。有鉴于此,为紧跟国际科研动态,面向中国学界介绍相关研究成果,以期推动相关方面研究,清华大学的江铭虎、王琳等学者组织人力对2005年至今出现在欧美顶级国际学术期刊的多篇有关脑与语言认知方面的论文进行了系统的翻译整理,出版了《脑与语言认知》,作为《清华大学认知科学译丛》系列的一本。本文通过评述该书整理的论文,总结当前脑与语言认知研究的进展,并指出此学科的发展趋势和其中有意义的研究点,以飨读者。

 

Keywords 关键词

Brain 大脑 Cognition 认知 Book review 书评

Abstract 摘要
The publication of the Complete Works of Fang-kuei Li (李方桂) in 13 volumes is a major event for Chinese linguistics (linguistics of the languages in China). The project was conceived by Ting Pang-hsin in 2003. He divided Li’s publications into 13 volumes, and for each volume he invited other linguists to be editor or co-editor. As the appended table of contents shows, the team of editors are mostly Li’s students or students of Li’s students, for example, Ting Panghsin, Mei Tsu-Lin, Gong Hwang-cherng, Xing Gongwan, South Coblin, Dai Qingxia, Lin Tao and Wu Tsung-chi. Volume13 (Chinese translation of Fang-kuei Li, Linguistics East and West: American Indian, Sino-Tibetan, and Thai, an oral history conducted in 1986 by Ningping Chan and Randy LaPolla (1988)) appeared first, in 2003. Volume 4 (the monograph on the Tai dialect of Wu-ming) came out in 2004, and other volumes followed in intervening years. Now with the completion of the Chinese translation of A Handbook of Comparative Tai by Ting Pang-hsin, all thirteen volumes are in print. Ting Pang-hsin is to be congratulated for conceiving this ambitious project in the first place, for assembling a team of like-minded scholars to carry it out, and for bringing the project to a successful completion after ten difficult years. Thanks are also due to Tsing Hua University Press for agreeing to publish the Complete Works. Why is it necessary to publish Li’s complete works in Chinese and in China? The question can be answered under three headings. (1) Li’s monographs on individual Tai dialects (such as the ones on Wu-ming and on Lung-chou) are in Chinese, but his comparative work such as A Handbook for Comparative Tai (1977) and The Tai and Kam-Sui languages, Lingua 14 (1965) are in English. The publications in English are usually not available in China. Now volumes 2-8 make available in Chinese all of Li’s writing on Kam-Sui and Tai linguistics, and this will surely be a boon for research in China. (2) Li’s early papers on Old Chinese phonology, written in the thirties against Karlgren’s OC reconstruction, are difficult to understand in English. Consequently, Chinese translation will make these papers more intelligible. (3) Karlgren’s Etudes sur la Phonologie chinoise (1915-26) was revised and translated into Chinese by Yuen-Ren Chao, Luo Ch’ang-p’ei and Fang-kuei Li and published in 1940 by the Commercial Press under title Zhongguo yinyunxue yanjiu 中國音韵學研究. This book has long been out of print in China. The Complete Works includes this classic as volume 12. In short, the Institute of History and Philology of Academia Sinica since its inception in 1928 has been promoting the scientific study of languages and dialects of China, and Fang-kuei Li was one half of the total effort, concentrating on the linguistics of non-Chinese languages in China and in neighboring countries. In the Complete Works we get 50 years of cumulative scholarship of the highest order. We also get to see how a master of the craft applies the same linguistic and philological principles to the study of four different groups of languages: American Indian, Old Tibetan as preserved in inscriptions, Kam-Sui and Tai, and Sino-Tibetan.

 

书评:《李方桂全集》

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