Journal of Chinese Linguistics Vol.5 – 1977

Journal of Chinese Linguistics vol.5 (1977) 中国语言学报 5 卷 (1977)

Volume 5, No 1

Article 文章

Abstract 摘要
The semantic properties of a set of verb-particles in Mandarin are specified in the framework of the various movements of a theme. This approach not only regularizes the seemingly diverse meanings of these particles when occurring in different syntactic environments, thereby defining their constant characteristics, but also enables us to satisfactorily relate spatial and temporal dimensions of activities, rendering it unnecessary to establish aspectual categories pertaining to some of the particles.

Abstract 摘要
This paper contains an exhaustive analysis of the rhyming of Xiao Yi, third emperor of the Liang Dynasty. A reconstruction of Xiao Yi’s literary dialect which conforms to his rhyming is made. As something is known of the contents of a rhyme book by the Liang scholar Xia-hou Gai, the results from rhyming analysis are compared with these contents. What is known of the contents of the Liang rhyme book largely supports the analysis of this MC dialect based on rhyming alone, especially in the portions where this reconstruction differs from most others.

Abstract 摘要
The perfective marker in modern Mandarin, le, has been generally associated with its homograph liao, a verb meaning ‘to complete’. Syntactically, it has been described as a matrix verb in an embedding sentence, which is subsequently lowered by transformation to become the aspect marker of the embedded verb. In classical writings, however, the graph liao appears only as a full verb, and a perfective aspect is either indicated by an adverb or inferable from context. In studying some late Tang colloquial writings excavated from a cave library in northwestern China, I have found a large number of examples of liao which seem to represent an early stage of development when liao first appeared as an aspect marker. Structurally, it differs from the modern le in the order in which it appears with an object NP or an adverb; semantically, it indicates not only the completion of an action but also, in some cases, the consequential state of an action. In Mandarin, the former may be expressed with the verb wan, but the latter can only be marked by le.

 

Abstract 摘要
The traditional division of the Chinese syllable into initial, final, and tone is examined. Distributional criteria are used to justify this analysis as more applicable to the Cantonese syllable than a strict segmental analysis. The notion of transpositional devices, which mediate between a foreign linguistic type and the native analytical tradition, is introduced. Rimemic analysis is introduced as a transpositional device particularly applicable to Cantonese. A detailed analysis of the Cantonese final is given, and the implications of this language-specific orientation for cross-language analyses are discussed.

Abstract 摘要
The present article endeavors to examine and evaluate studies in the field of Sino-Korean linguistics which appeared primarily in the twentieth century, but with particular emphasis on work accomplished since 1955. While a bibliographical listing is imperative for this kind of article, it is limited to a minimum, and the discussions are focused on how the studies were developed, what the current state is, and where problems are. The article is followed by a bibliography which covers only those works mentioned in the main text.

 

Review 书评

Discussion 讨论

Editorial 编辑说明

Volume 5, No 2

Article 文章

Abstract 摘要
Two types of yes-no questions are recognizable in Taiwanese: the assertive and the non-assertive. Semantically the former presupposes a statement or view already expressed or understood to be asserted whereas the latter presupposes other modalities. Syntactically the former is characterized by the alternative question that uses sī ‘be’ conjoined with its negation -sī ‘not be’ as the higher predicates, as in sī–sī ‘is-not-is’ or ‘is it or is it not the case that …?’ The latter is formed by using other modal verbs such as ū ‘existing’, beh ‘willing’, ē ‘likely’, etc., as predicates on the same level of sentence.

Abstract 摘要
In Cantonese, there are cases where two semantically related monosyllabic morphemes contrast with each other by tone only. It is found that such cases may be divided into four groups, A, B, C and D. In Group A, all the derived morphemes bear the yin qu tone and in Group B, all the derived morphemes bear the yang qu tone except for one derivative which is pronounced in the yang ru tone. In Group C, the derivatives all bear the yin shang tone whereas in Group D, except for one derivative which bears the high yin ru tone, the derivatives all take on the yin ping tone.

Abstract 摘要
This paper argues for a reconsideration of the emphasis traditionally placed on ‘er-ization’, as defined below, in contemporary Mandarin language instruction outside China.

Abstract 摘要
This paper shows that 16th century Pekingese already had the tone sandhi rule which converts two third tones into a second tone followed by a third, and that it operated then as a dissimilating process with respect to contour. The Neutral Tone Rule of Modern Pekingese can also be traced back to the 16th century in essentially the same form. 16th century tone values are reconstructed, and Modern values are derived from them via a hypothetical pull chain, in which only one tone feature changes at a time.

Abstract 摘要
The subject of this article is a Cantonese-speaking infant who arrived in the United States at 16 months. Observations of her Cantonese speech at 19 months showed three striking anomalies: 1) disintegration of her tonal system; 2) the addition of a determiner substitute before any noun; 3) the use of the benefactive marker béi in sentences where tùhng ‘with’ is appropriate. These anomalies are discussed, and it is proposed that, although at this stage Claire spoke almost no English, the origin of these errors may have been the English-speaking environment into which she had just moved.

Abstract 摘要
In this paper we have explored the interrelationship of syntax and semantics in two specific types of the Verb-Verb construction in Mandarin, namely, resultative verb compounds and directional verb compounds. We have argued against the traditional way of defining resultative verbs, which, we think, relies too much on a single syntactic criterion. Evidence has been presented to show that the so-called resultative verbs are actually made up of many different classes of Verb-Verb constructions, with each possessing a specific semantic implication on the basis of the second verb in the construction. This piece of semantic information is important in that it has close syntactic correlation, and it has been hitherto largely neglected in the analysis of resultative verbs.

Abstract 摘要
Some psychologists in the United States have claimed that complex Chinese characters are easier to learn than simple or simplified ones. The fault with the arguments presented in support of such a view lies in the assumptions that complexity is positively correlated with redundancy and that redundancy always yields economy of effort. The ease or difficulty of learning simplified and complex characters is examined in terms of both recognition and reproduction. Empirical observations and careful studies of errors in actual learning situations all point to the conclusion that complex characters are harder to learn. Psychological experiments with Chinese characters are also cited to strengthen the argumentation. It is then suggested that the teaching of Chinese characters proceed from the simplified, with simplified-to-complex conversion rules given as appropriate. Students in the first two years of a Chinese program should be taught to write in simplified characters.

Discussion 讨论

Index 索引

Corrigenda 勘误

Share on facebook
Facebook
Share on google
Google+
Share on twitter
Twitter
zh_HKZH-HK