Journal of Chinese Linguistics Vol.15 – 1987

Volume 15, No 1

Article 文章

Abstract 摘要
Even though the ba construction has been much discussed in the literature in the past, many problems noticed by previous researchers remain unanswered. This paper attempts to analyze the construction from a completely different perspective–that of topic–comment. It starts out by summarizing the properties that the Chinese topic is found to have and compares them first with those possessed by the initial NP in the ba construction and then with those owned by the ba NP. Such comparisons reveal that the initial NP is, as expected, a regular topic and the ba NP is a secondary topic of some special kind. It then goes on to examine the function and meaning of the construction. It is concluded that the function of ba is to mark the following NP as a special topic, and the meaning of the construction is to make clear the transitivity relation between the primary topic and the ba topic and to bring into focus the result, as expressed by the verb and its complement. It is also found that in its extended use the construction can serve to express causative relation. Finally, an interpretative rule is posited and a suggestion is made as to how the construction, considered as a clause type in a topic chain, is to be generated.

虽然以前讨论“把”字句的论文为数甚多,但前人所指出来的许多问题至今尤未能有合理的解释。本文拟用主题-评论这个全新的观点来讨论分析“把”字句,并希望用这种分析能解决以前无法解决的许多问题。是以本文首先概要地说明前人所报导中文主题所具备的特质,然后以这些特质分别和“把”字句的句首名词短语以及“把”名词短语的特质作一详尽的比较。比较的结果发现句首名词短语完全符合主题的特质,而“把”名词短语的特质也绝大部分与主题的特质符合。为示区别,本文特将“把“名词短语称为第二主题。 本文并仔细检视“把”字句的意义和功能,所得的结论为:“把”字的功能在于标示其后的名词短语为特殊主题,而整句的意义是在强调第一主题跟把“把”主题之间的“主宾关系 ”并同时使动词和其后之补语成为新信息。本文并指出“把”字的延伸用法可以用来表示使动关系。最后本文提出了一条释意规则,并探讨“把 ”字句当作“主题连锁 ”的一种句形式,如何能衍生出来的问题。

Abstract 摘要
The prototype structures of two social activity terms, xiao ‘filial piety’ and mei mianzi ‘loss of face’, were experimentally investigated. The data were subjected to an ANOVA based on the within-subjects design. All of the main effects were found to reach significance and the relative weight of the prototype elements proposed for each of the two terms was consistent across all situations. These results provide strong support for the particular prototypes proposed and for the accuracy of the experiments in tapping behavior relevant to social life. The paper concludes with some methodological reflections on the adequacy of the questionnaire method as an experimental tool.

本文以实验方法研究“孝”和“面子”两词的基型意义结构。并依组内实验设计把资料作变异分析。实验结果发现所有的主要效果均达显着标准,同时本文所设立之基型成分的相对重要性在所有的情况下都表现相当之一致性。这些实验结果一方面支持基型意义理论的假设,也说明实验方法可以精确地寻求出人类社会行为之内涵。

Abstract 摘要
“Antonymous pairs” of Chinese origin in Korean form a large set of characteristic expressions: their analysis may be very instructive for a synchronic investigation of the linguistic status of Classical Chinese loanwords in modern East Asian languages, i.e. Korean, Japanese, Vietnamese and even modern standard Chinese. From the lexicological point of view they are bimorphemic nouns. Still, judging from their behavior within texts, they seem not to be merely single nouns but can play a role similar to that of a two-element phrase or even a clause. This functional peculiarity is clearly observable in strings consisting of Sino-Korean elements only. Here the antonymous pairs show their linguistic autonomy preserved within the guest language and systemic distinctness from the genuine elements. Consequently, they can serve as clear evidence of the co- and poly-systemic character of Korean and other East Asian languages.

古汉语的反义对词在现代朝鲜语中是一个很大的,并富有特色的词汇群。在东亚诸语 言(日语,越南语,甚至现代汉语)中的这些反义对词对我们共时地探讨古汉语借词在语言学中的位置是极为有用的。 从词汇角度看,这些反义对词都是双语素的名词。但在句法上,这些词就不仅仅是单独的名词,有时可以起到与短语相类似的作用。这种功能上的特征在朝鲜语中全由汉字构成的短语中表现得尤为明显。这些反义对词在借用语言中保留了其原有的区别性。 这样,这些反义对词可以为朝鲜语及其它远东语言的多体系性和共体系性的特性提供证据。

Abstract 摘要
The purpose of this paper is to compare etymologically the words found in Taiwanese texts and their Mandarin equivalents, and to attempt to explain why there is a clear-cut tendency for the content words to share a much higher rate of identical etymons between the two varieties of Chinese than do the function words. Comparisons of either group of vocabulary were made in terms of inventories and running texts. In particular, I would like to make the following points on the basis of statistical data: 1) The higher percentage of same etymons between Taiwanese and Mandarin content words is due to a higher rate of retention from the proto-language, in addition to a higher rate of borrowing between the two languages through indirect or direct contact in the past. 2) The lower rate of same etymons between the Taiwanese and Mandarin function words is due to a much lower rate of retention of function words than content words from the proto-language, in addition to the rarity of the borrowing of function words from one language into another. 3) If the rate of etymon replacement among the function words is particularly high, and if replacement due to borrowing is rare, then replacement of etymons among function words must be due to internal development.

本文比较华语(即华人社会的官话)和台湾话之间的词汇异同。如看文章里所用的不同的词汇,实词(指名,动,形等三词类)占30%,虚词占50%之多。如比较词典里常用语的不同,实词占34.4%,虚词占70.4%。两语之间虚词的不同都多于实词的不同。如把古文译成今日两语,虚词的变化大于实词的变化。两语间实词相同的比例较高应归因为较容易移借,又较容易保留古词汇。虚词变化较快,既非归因于向其它方言或语言移借,那么应该是经过内部发展的变化。 本文观察汉语二三千年来语言的五种变化是否对实词和虚词有不同的影响。西化的语汇绝大多数只影响到实词,而没有影响到虚词。汉语语法的变化所带来的词汇变化只限于虚词。影响到实词的只限于附加成分(即前缀,后缀,中插成分)。语音简化大致上是实词虚词都影响。多音词的增加经过复合或附加的过程,多半影响实词,而很少影响虚词。两语之间的移借则只限于复合词,而很少牵涉到附加语。两个音节合成一个音节,只发生于虚词或后缀成分。

Abstract 摘要
This study examines, within Halliday and Hasan’s (1976) framework of demonstrative reference, some referential functions of demonstratives in Chinese discourse. We have found that the use of zero-demonstrative in Chinese is the unmarked form of reference roughly corresponds to the referential function of the (or it) in English, and that the use of demonstratives is the marked form of reference roughly corresponding to the referential function of the demonstratives in English. Furthermore, we have shown that, while the functional difference both between zhè and nà in Chinese and between this and that in English is explainable in terms of proximity. In Chinese there is a much stronger psychological element in the concept of proximity, which often conspires with the notion of real spatial, temporal and textual distance to affect writers’ choices between zhè and nà.

本文以韩礼德和哈桑 (Halliday and Hasan 1976) 提出的指示照应体系为框架,分析了汉语篇章中指示词的一些照应作用。我们发现,汉语中使用零指示词是照应的无标记形式,其照应作用大致相当于英语中的 the (或it); 而使用指示词则是照应的有标记形式,其照应作用大致相当于英语中的指示词。这一分析还表明,尽管汉语中这与那之间的区别和英语中 this与 that之间的区别都可以用接近度 (proximity) 来解释,但是在汉语的接近度这一概念中有一个较强的心理成分,这一心理成分经常与实际的时空和篇章距离概念共同起作用,影响汉语使用者在选用这与那时作出某种取舍。

Abstract 摘要
This paper presents a study of the word zan, a pronominal item in Mandarin Chinese, by analyzing its person and social deictic properties. A word with its own unique functions irreplaceable by other seemingly equivalent proforms, zan demonstrates three sets of person deictic features: /+S, +An, ±On/, /-S, +An, -O/ and /+S, -A, -O/. These features, in turn, are used in various discourse contexts in accordance with the varying social distinctions. Intimacy, resentment and informality are some of the social deictic features that zan readily marks in conversation. Though a pronoun seldom used in formal written Chinese, zan enjoys vast popularity in the language’s spoken form and thrives on its rich deictic values.

本文通过对“咱”这一汉语代词的人称指示特征及社会指示特征的分析,就该词作了一些阐述。这个词所具备的许多独有的功能是不能为其近义词或同义词所取代的。以人称的角度来讲,它有三组指示特征:[ +S, +An, ± On], [–S, +An, –O] 及 [+S, –A, –O]。这三组人称指示特征可以被灵活地运用于不同的语言交际场合,用来表明不断变化的社会语气:如亲昵语气,不满语气,非正式语气等。虽然“咱”很少出现于书面语,但被广泛地使用于汉语的口语中。由于其丰富的指示功能,该词享有很强的活力。

Review 书评

Bibliography 书目

Volume 15, No 2

Article 文章

Abstract 摘要
What follows is a collection of four papers on Tianjin tone sandhi. The introductory piece identifies some of the chief issues, which are: the directionality of rule application, the ordering relations holding among the elementary rules, and the parsing of sentences into prosodic domains of tone sandhi. For each of these problems, possible solutions are presented and promising directions for further investigation are suggested.

下面是有关天津话连读变调的四篇讨论文章。在序篇里,一些主要的问题,象规则运用的方向性;基本规则运用的次序关系;以及把句子转换成为连读变调的分析等,都作了界定。对上述各个问题,本文都提供了可能的解答,并为未来进一步的研究提出了方向。

Abstract 摘要
Li and Liu collect four kinds of contexts for the sandhi rules in the Tianjin dialect (TTS) to apply and they mention the blocking of TTS by emphasis. However, nothing has been said about the interaction of the four TTS rules, the manner of their application, or the contrast between utterances with alternative derived forms and those without. The present paper shows that (1) each of the four TTS rules applies in a certain direction and is ordered with respect to the rest, rather than freely as proposed by Hung (1986b); (2) within a given domain, the TTS rules apply in their own way, regardless of the morphosyntactic structures of the syllables undergoing TTS; (3) the contrast between sole and alternative derivability results from the blocking of TTS by emphasis or the normal application of TTS with no intended emphasis. Since emphasis is something relative, only those tone groups (TG’s) decomposable into the emphasized and the control components may have alternative derived forms, depending on whether emphasis is intended and on which component is being emphasized. On the other hand, for a single word bearing a whole TG, there is nothing to be emphasized for lack of a control component.

李,刘归纳了天津方言连读变调的四种情况,也提到强调对变调的中止。然而他们没提及变调诸则的相互作用,它们各自进行的方式,一种或多种变调结果的区别何以存在。本文旨在阐明(1)变调诸则各循其方向进行,而且互相之间排列有序;(2)在一特定范围,变调诸则按其自身规律进行,与词法句法结构无关;(3)一种或多种变调结果的差异是由于具有多种变调结果的一段话可以有强调的因素起作用,使变调中止,也可以不强调任何组成部分,使变调正常进行,而只有一种变调结果的一段话因不可能有强调的因素起作用,只能任变调正常进行-由于强调是相对的,只有可以分为强调部分与非强调部分的话语有多种变调的可能。反之,一个多音节单词素的词,由于缺少对照成份,也就无强调成份可言。

Abstract 摘要
The “paradox of Tianjin tone sandhi”, thanks to Chen’s stimulating paper (1986b), has attracted much attention in recent theoretical discussions, due to the problems it seems to present to the theory of phonological rule application and of the interaction between phonology and other components of grammar. The present paper is an attempt at resolving the paradox. It proposes to separate the Tianjin Tone Sandhi Rule (hereafter TTS) into different rules, which can have different modes of application and be ordered with respect to one another. A specific proposal is made about the application of the rules (TTSs), based on the data of Li-Liu (1985) and Tan (1986a). Derivations are given of all the interesting types of sandhi forms in the available database. The proposal has a large empirical coverage. As far as the present database is concerned, only a few exceptions exist, which may well be accommodated when the proposal is relativized with an explicitly characterized domain of tone sandhi. Justifications are given in support of the proposal, which is shown to follow from general principles and not merely mechanical stipulations. The separation of TTS and TTSs is not only necessary but also natural. Comparisons are made between the present analysis and Hung (1986b) and Tan (1986a), two detailed analyses of Tianjin tone sandhi since Chen (1986b).

“天津方言变调之谜”对于音系规律施用法及语言各部分相互作用的理论提出了棘手的问题。本文提议将“天津变调律”分为不同的几个规律。这些规律可有不同的施用法,并且相互间有次序。本文并提出了具体的规律施用法。结果证明李-刘(1985)和谭(1986a)的绝大部分语例可用此法解释。剩下的少数反例有可能用‘变调域’来解释。有充分理由说明本提议绝非机械方法,而是符合一般理论原则的。将‘天津变调律’分为不同规则不仅有必要,而且很自然。本文并将此提议跟洪(1986b)和谭(1986a)的分析作了比较。

Abstract 摘要
The paper attempts a unified and motivated analysis of the complex and puzzling tone sandhi phenomena of Tianjin, by appealing to a simple phontactic constraint disfavoring identical low tones in juxtaposition (well-attested in Mandarin dialects). Far from being wildly idiosyncratic, Tianjin tone sandhi rules are shown to apply in essentially the same, free mode. Departures from the norm, with respect to mode of application in certain tone sequences, variant readings, extrinsic rule-ordering, and rule optionality, are motivated by the phonotactic constraint. The paper also explores the prosodic domains within which Tianjin tone sandhi operates.

天津方言的连读变调,表面上极度复杂。但复杂的现象并不一定要有复杂和过量的分析。本文对这题目作一有动机和单一性的探讨。天津连读变调四种规则的用法基本上都是自由的。其中不一致或特别的现象,如:(1)有些声调序列产生特殊的变调方式;(2)有些声调序列产生两种不同的读法;(3)变调规则的次序;(4)变调规则的任意性,一概可由一简单和有独立动机的声调配列制约作为动机。最后本文也探讨了天津方言声调群的结构。

Abstract 摘要
A tripartite hypothesis is here proposed for the functions of the Mandarin verbal suffix -le: (1) for marking non-continuing factual actions/events. (2) for indicating the “peak” in an event line, and (3) for explicitly marking anteriority of an action/event. Observations of actual written data confirm the above hypothesis as underlying regularities. Certain modifications, however, have to be incorporated. While action verbs in a phrase with a classical flavor are not compatible with this -le, monosyllabic action verbs require one. Furthermore, anteriority tends to be explicitly marked by -le when the verbs in the series of clauses are not cohesive enough to indicate such a natural sequence and/or when a special emphasis is called for on the order of the events. By comparison with previous works on the discourse function of -le, the present hypothesis seems to be able to explain more facts and in more principled manner.

本文对汉语动词词尾“了”字的功能,提出下列三点假设:(1)用以表示已发生的行动或事件,但不表示延续,(2)用以表示一连串发生事件中之“高峰”,(3)用以特别表示某一行动或事件发生在另一个之前。从书面语之观察,可以肯定,上述三点假设,确为基本常规。然而,为了要解释若干例外,以上之假设必须略加补注。单音节行动动词,如合乎上述(1)中的条件,必须加上“了”字,但是文言词组,则不能加“了”。如果一连串行动动词彼此间没有语意上的连索性,则必须用语尾“了”以明白表示彼等之连续发生;连串行动动词之间前后次序需要强调时亦然。本文所提出之假设,若与先前之文法分析相比,似乎较有条理可循,且能解释较为广泛的现象。

Abstract 摘要
Languages with five constrastive level tones are rarely found in the world. Maddison once listed several such languages: African languages such as Dan, Kporo, Ashuku and Ngamambo; Asian languages such as Black Miao, Tahua Yao and some Puyi dialects; and American languages such as Trigue, Ticuna and Usila Chiantec (Maddison, 1978). Examples are also recorded in the literature of Chinese linguistics. For example, Chang Kun (1947) described the Yong-Cong Miao languages as having five level tones in addition to a rising tone and two falling tones, and Li Fangkui described the Tai Gong Miao language with five level tones in addition to a falling tone and two rising tones (see Kwan 1967). It is generally considered that five level tones are the maximum number that a language can possibly have. For this reason, the “tone letters” of Y.R. Chao (1930) have only five pitch levels. In order to distinguish five level tones, W. S-Y. Wang (1967) proposed the feature Mid in the system of distinctive features of tones. Maddison (1978) even considered the maximum number of five pitch levels as the first of the universal features of tone languages in the world. He said “A language may contrast up to five levels of tone, but no more.” Their viewpoint seems true indeed, for, even now, we have not found any language that has more than five level tones. The analysis of tonemic systems with five level tones is of great significance in the study of tone. What we frequently encounter in our studies are tone systems of languages or dialects which have one, two or three level tones. There is a considerable physiological and psychological space between neighboring level tones, whose acoustic behavior displays a considerable degree of freedom. Falling or rising tones are often distinguished from each other only in terms of pitch contour with few limitations on their actual pitch levels. Therefore, it will enrich our knowledge of tone to study the articulation of five level tones within a single system, to observe their acoustic behavior and features of recognition, and to perceive their relationships in monosyllables and their variations occurring in polysyllabic words. This is helpful both for the theory of tones and for the study of the Gaoba Dong language itself.

对于同一声调格局中的五个平调进行分析,这在声调研究中是很有意思的。我们迄今尚未发现一种语言具有五个以上的平调。具有五个平调的语言并不多见。本文提供了高坝侗语五个平调的实验记录和分析结果。这五个平调的平均声调曲线开头部分都指向调域的中段,呈现一种有趣的放射状对称图型,反映出声带发音时的生理调节过程。这种有规律出现的声调弯头可能为我们辨识不同的声调提供信息。相邻平调之间的音程在听觉上是“等距离”的。假设fo为调域下限频率,fn代表从低到高的各调的频率 (n = 1, 2, 3, 4),则等式 fn+1 – fo = 2(fn – fo) 基本上可以表明以赫兹为单位的数量关系。这种方法的意义有待于更多的资料积累和证明。实验表明,在连读中,调域下限比较稳定。调域上限变化较大。因此,五个平调在连读中都是只有上升的变化,只是最高调除升高之外,还有降低的变化。

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