Journal of Chinese Linguistics Vol.17 – 1989

Volume 17, No 1

Article 文章

Abstract 摘要
This article is to simply introduce the goals and main contents of China’s developing language planning, especially focusing on the languages and writing systems of the minority groups in China. At the end of the article are five appendices, they are, respectively, Population and Distribution of Minorities in China, Autonomous Regions and Areas of China’s Minorities, the Language of China and Their Genetic Classification, Types of Minority Language Writing Systems and Their Status, and the Status of Broadcasts in Minority Languages.

本文简要介绍了中国开展语言规划的目的和主要内容,特别对少数民族语言文字的使用情况作了一定的描述。文末有五个附录,分别介绍了中国少数民族的人口和分布,中国少数民族的自治地方。中国的语言及其谱系分类,中国的少数民族文字种类及其使用情况,中国使用少数民族语言广播的情况。

 

Abstract 摘要
This paper proposed a default technique to enhance the efficiency of Chinese text-processing devices using the phonetic alphabet. The principal idea of the default technique is to establish a context-sensitive table of default characters for a given syllable. For example, on receiving an input string li4, the computer would search for the most likely character pronounced as such and display it in the text area, so that the user could decide whether a correction is needed. The default character is determined by the transliteration of the target character and that of its preceding character. The default for a 1i4 preceded by /ju3/ could be 例, while that for li4 preceded by /mei3/ could be 丽. If the preceding context is not included in the default table, the most frequently used li4 (i.e., 力) would be displayed as the default. The rate of successful guessing, that is, the percentage of defaults matching targets, currently averaged 83%.

本文提出一种‘前后音设定字’输入技术以提高中文拼音文书处理的效率。此技术的基本观念是在电脑里存一套设定字字表。当使用者键入一个字音时(例如:li4),由电脑根据字表‘猜’他要的是那一个li4,而把设定的li4字显示出来,让使用者决定是否需要修改。至于li4字的设定,则参考文句里前一个音与li4的关系而决定。例如ju3li4的li4,设定字可能是‘例’,mei3li4的li4,设定字可能是‘丽’。如果文稿中li4的前一字字音不在设定字字表上,则单子使用率最高的li4(力)是设定字。目前设定字与目标字吻合的比率,亦即猜对率,平均为83%。

Abstract 摘要
Intonation interacts with tones. Generally speaking, lexical tones are influenced in their F0 movement by sentence-intonation, but contrary to Chao’s position, their basic contours are preserved. The effect of intonation on tones is manifested by the phenomenon of pitch-neutralization, but not by an addition of a directionally opposite pitch-prolongation.

语调作用于声调。概括来说,声调的基频受句子语调的影响。与赵元任先生的观点相反,声调的基本调型仍保留下来。语调对声调的影响主要表现在音高的中和上,并不由于语调的作用而产生与声调方向反向的延长音。

Abstract 摘要
The negation marker mei in Mandarin can give rise to two opposite readings when it is used with chadianr ‘almost’. The other negation marker bu creates similar ambiguity when it is preceded by intensifier hao and followed by a stative verb. By differentiating the metalinguistic function of negation markers from their descriptive, truth-functional capacity, this paper resolves the ambiguity in those two cases in terms of semantic/pragmatic notions such as conversational implicature, the entailment relation between scalarly evaluated predicates, and the Gricean Maxim of Quantity. The metalinguistic uses all point to an evaluative/expressive marking of the speaker’s involved attitude towards the referent state/event.

汉语中的否定词‘没’与‘差一点’并用时会产生两种相反的意义。另一否定词‘不’在‘好不+静态动词’的组合里也会造成跟‘差一点没’相类似的相反歧义。本文把否定词的决定真假值的功能和他们诠释语言运用的功能加以分别。上述两例中的歧义则用语义学及语用学中的观念,诸如会话暗示,逻辑暗示关系,以及葛氏(Gricean)会话分量定律来解释。这些诠释语言运用的功能都是用以加强说话者的语气,表明他对所指事物的关切态度。

Abstract 摘要
This paper examines the tonal changes in the XYY and XXYY types of reduplicates between 1932 and 1963. While most of the reduplicates exhibit no particular tonal changes, a substantial minority manifest certain changes with respect to the YY syllables. The dictionaries of the 1932 system have displayed a total of 6 tonal shapes (viz. YY, Y0, 00, 10, Yl and 11) for the YY syllables, which are found to be merely transient variants in rapid speech wherein the Weak Stress has been involved. This may be comparable to the changes occurring in certain tri-syllabic words (e.g. 121 –> 111 for “西洋参”) in rapid speech. In the 1963 system, the changes stride directly into the First Tone, bypassing the turbulent intermediate stage. Such a change is apparently on the rise in the XYY reduplicates, but has declined sharply in the XXYY ones. Onomatopoeia of the colloquial stratum, reduplicated or otherwise, and certain Northern provincial reduplicates carry predominantly the First Tone. There appears to be a correlation between the First Tone reading and the highly colloquial expressions in the language. The fact that only a minority of the XYY and XXYY reduplicates have been changing into the First Tone may very well be attributed to the level of colloquialism. The First Tone readings of the reduplicates may take root and replace the original tonal category of the character, that is, when it is not in reduplication. For instance, according to the dictionary listings, characters “微, 巍, 赳 and 悄”, etc. are gradually changing into the First Tone. Transient shapes emerging in rapid speech should not be confused with, hence taken to replace, the shapes in normal speech. Therefore, apart from a small number of reduplicates wherein the YY syllables carry little or no semantic load (e.g. 羞答答, 稀刺刺), the majority in which the YY syllables do carry distinct semantic load (e.g. 绿油油, 血淋淋) should be annotated in their original tones in the dictionary. Likewise, the so-called “(lexical) Neutral Tone words” should also be annotated in their original tones. The present conception of the norms for the standard pronunciation, which underlies both the Mainland’s readiness for change and Taiwan’s resistence to change, needs revision. The Peking pronunciation should only be a starting point, but not an eternal track, for Standard Mandarin.

在汉语中,XYY和XXYY式的重叠词中的YY音节有向阴平变化的倾向。这个变化在词汇上是渐变的。本文检察了1932年至1963年间四部字典中两种重叠词中的声调变化,大部分的重叠词没有显示变化。从变化的过程来看,在原调和变化后的阴平调之间,有一个非重音的‘轻声’阶段。这实际上是一种快语速中的变调现象。本文根据上述现象又讨论了汉语的规范问题。结论是:1)北京话只能是一个标准语的起点,而不是永恒的准则。2)作为一个地大人众国家的标准语,汉语不能以一地的话语来规范。

Abstract 摘要
We first examine the particle le in Mandarin Chinese and conclude that its semantics forces us to allow the category of aspect to extend beyond the domain of Verbs. Secondly, we find that the semantics of le does not conform to the semantics of Perfective and Imperfective familiar to us from Indo-European languages. Rather, le signals the presence of an interruption, which may be, for example, the boundary of an event, the disruption which occurs upon suddenly recognizing a previously unnoticed entity, or any other circumstance appropriate to this semantics. Extending our investigation, we examine three additional particles in Mandarin Chinese: guo, zai, and zhe. Here, we find that the idea of a semantic interruption recurs, but that there is now a second semantic contrast of immediate: remote. Together, the semantics of presence and absence of interruption and the semantics of immediate: remote allow us to order the four particles into a coherent semantic system of aspect.

传统有关‘态’(或称‘情貌’、‘体’)的研究,常把‘态’与时间观念相混淆,且误以为‘态’是动词形式中的一种。本文首先指出‘态’的范畴,实不应局限于时间观念与动词本身而已;应可扩及动词组、句子、段落,甚至更大的言谈单位。依此,我们以为一般汉语语言学家所谓的‘动词了’和‘句尾了’实为同一词位。进一步地,我们尝试性地提出几项原则,借以探讨汉语中四个助词‘了、过、在、着’如何构成一个表‘态’的语意系统。

New Publication 新书

Report 报告

Corrigenda 斟误

Volume 17, No 2

Article 文章

Abstract 摘要
The dawn of linguistics in China can be traced to the 4th century B.C. At the time Plato was discussing the nature of words in ancient Greece, Xunzi was writing on the same topic, coming to conclusions which are remarkably similar. The first major study of linguistic geography [by Yang Xiong] was published at the beginning of the Christian era. In contrast, comparable work in linguistic geography in Europe began in the 19th century. Yang’s study was closely followed by an extensive dictionary [by Xu Shen]. Phonological studies emerged as early as in the 3rd century. Impressive results were achieved in the reconstruction of ancient pronunciations, especially toward the end of the 16th century [by Chen Di]. This was some 200 years before comparable work began in the west, with the Indo-European hypothesis. Systematic work on grammar, however, emerged in China as a result of European influence only at the end of the 19th century [by Ma Jianzhong]. The fact that the various parts of linguistics have developed in China at such different rates is related to the three most distinctive characteristics of her primary language: it is tonal, it has no inflectional morphology, and it is written with morpho-syllabic graphs.

中国汉语语言学的起源可上溯到公元前四世纪。当古希腊的柏拉图在探讨词的性质的时候,苟子也在研究相同的问题并得出了相当一致的结论。扬雄的地理语言学的研究在公元初就问世了。而可与之相比的地理语言学研究直到十九世纪才在欧洲出现。在扬雄的研究之后又接着出现了许慎的大规模的字典。语音的研究早在三世纪就出现了,成就主要在古音研究方面,其中以十六世纪陈第的研究最为突出。这比西方以印欧语假设为标志的研究早了两百年左右。系统的语法研究直到十九世纪末才在西方的影响下出现,马建忠的研究是一个典型的例子。汉语的三大特征是:有声调,缺乏屈折变化和用汉字书写。可以说,汉语语言学发展中的不平衡性是与这些特征有密切关系的。

 

Abstract 摘要
This paper is a study of the so-called topic chain, a category that is to be considered as a discourse level phenomenon and excluded from the syntax. It will be argued in this paper that topic chain is actually a basic unit in Chinese syntax. It has all the syntactic functions normally assumed for an S’ in this language, i.e., it can be the subject, the verbal complement, the NP complement, the adverbial and the modifier of an NP in a Chinese sentence. It will also be argued that the definition for the category of topic chain should be interpreted in a more liberal way, so that certain types of topic chain will no longer be excluded. It will be demonstrated that a topic chain is not simply a coordinate construction. It is a separate category in the grammar with its own syntactic properties. Much insight could be gained by the study on this rarely mentioned category.

汉语的主题链向来被认为属于话语分析的范畴,因而排除在句法分析之外。事实上,除了能单独成句之外,主题链可以在句子中充当主语,宾语,同位语,状语和定语,所以应该归入句法分析,作为汉语的基本语法单位之一。主题链的范围不应局限于主题处于句首的情形,而应作适当扩大。主题链并非单句的简单并列,而是一个独立的,具有特别性质的句法单位,对这一语法现象的研究必能加深对汉语语法的理解。

Abstract 摘要
This paper examines various aspects of antonymous quadrinomials (AQs for short) derived from affixing the bipolar terms to a disyllabic base in Chinese, a ubiquitous device of word-formation that often escapes linguists’ attention. Two questions that are of central concern to me are: (1) How can a proper output of an AQ be derived by inputting the base to the affix? (2) In what ways is the interpretation of an AQ adequately processed? In addressing the first question I explore such issues as the formation of AQs in line with the syntactic and morphological conditions, the output condition which hinges on syntactic categories and functions, co-occurrence and selection restrictions, and the linear order constraints including those of the bipolar affix and the base and the configuration in AQs. Discussion of the second question centers around such topics as the semantics of bipolar compounds and the meaning of the base–totality, zenith and iteration–and the asymmetric behavior of AQs and bipolar compounds. The wordhood and the productivity of AQs are also looked into.

本文旨在探讨汉语里对立四字格(简称对格)的各层面。对格是由对立词附加于词基所形成的,这种汉语中屡见不鲜的构词形式常为人所忽视。有两个问题构成本文的焦点:1)如何由词基加词缀得出切当的对格;2)对格的语义是如何解析的。有关第一个问题,我讨论了以下几点:衍生对格时,要得知词基的构词句法等特性;得出对格之后,还需标明其语法范畴和功能,共存限制;就先后顺序而论,词基词缀大多数都遵从先平后仄的音韵规律;对格里成份的顺序也有一定的限制,第二个问题是有关语义方面,对立词和对格都具有全称和不对称的语意特性,但近似义前者才有,反之顶点义和反复义后者才有。此外,也从对格的语法行为断定它是词而非词组,并讨论了对格的孳生力。

Abstract 摘要
Twelve dialect maps represent the geographic variation of Guiyang dialect, spoken in Guiyan[g], Guizhou Province, China. The dialect in the Guiyang area is considered to be linguistically uniform, and have no significant differences in its subdialects. The isoglosses in the maps clearly show that the linguistics variation in this area is rather complex. In this article the mathed of subgrouping and the historical and cultural background of isolosses are also discussed.

贵阳地区的方言一般被认为内部较为一致的。本文中用316个点上的材料所制成的12帧地图表明:贵阳方言的内部差异是相当复杂并且相当明显的。本文也对同言线的文化历史背景以及方言分类的方法作了一些讨论。

Abstract 摘要
This paper is mainly on the origin and the development of the passive bei-sentences, but the different types of other passive constructions are also traced according to their chronological order. The verb bei “to receive, to suffer, to undergo, to be affected” begins to be used, under the Han period, in the “Vi + V2” serial verb construction (where V1 = bei), by analogy with the “V1 jian + V2” structure which is common since Late Archaic Chinese, and where jian is an auxiliary verb marking the passive. Like jian, bei has then a verbal status and V2 is the object of V1. There has been a single lexical replacement: V jian > V bei. As for the “bei + Agent + V” form which becomes common only from Sui-Tang times, the “wei + Agent + V” form, widespread since the Han, could also have served as a model, but there was no single lexical replacement. A grammaticalization process intervened changing the verb bei into the preposition bei. This mechanism took place in the “V1 bei + NP-Agent + V2” serial verb construction.

本文主要讨论“被”字被动句的渊源和发展,亦按着发展的先后次序讨论其它各种不同的被动句。有“受”的意思的动词“被”在汉代开始用于“V1+V2”的连动式中(其中V1=被),这个用法是通过与“V1见+V2”结构同类的现象而实现的。而“V1见 +V2”式已普遍用于上古后期的汉语中,其中“见”是表示被动的助动词。与“见”一样,“被”是动词,而V2是V1的宾语。发生的现象是单一的词汇替代:V 见 > V 被。 从隋唐后才出现普遍的‘被+Agent+V’式。亦可能是以在汉代已常见的‘为+Agent+V’式为模范而演遍出来的。但发生的并不是单一的词汇替代,而是将动词‘被’转化为介词‘被’的语法化过程。这个规律性的变化产生在‘V1 被+NP Agent+V2’连动结构中。

Memoriam 缅怀

Report 报告

New Publication 新书

Share on facebook
Facebook
Share on google
Google+
Share on twitter
Twitter
zh_HKZH-HK