Volume 42, No 1
Haitao Liu 刘海涛; Jin Cong 丛进
The conception of language as a multi-level system is widely accepted in modern linguistics. However, due to the absence of operational methodology, there has been no empirical characterization of any language as a multi-level system in the current body of linguistic research. The present study attempts to fill this gap by examining modern Chinese as a multi-level system from the complex network approach. Based on the same body of corpus data, four levels as language sub-systems along the meaning-form dimension of the language are modeled as linguistic networks. On the basis of topological analysis of the four linguistic networks, the organizational patterns of the four language sub-systems are described and compared quantitatively and the results are interpreted from an interdisciplinary perspective. To varying degrees, the four network models exhibit a series of non-trivial statistical patterns, which shed light on different aspects of the organization of the four sub-systems. The similarities and differences of the four sub-systems in organizational patterns reflect the relationships between them. In more than one way, the results of this study point to the close connection between relevant properties of the language and human cognition, which facilitates linguistic performance of different types.
Multi-level system 多层级系统 Modern Chinese 现代汉语 Complex network 复杂网络 Linguistic network 语言网络 Organizational pattern 组织方式 Human cognition 人类认知
Hui-hua Hwang 黄惠华; James H-Y.Tai 戴浩一
This paper discusses the distribution of aspect marker -zhe in Chinese serial verb constructions (SVCs) with the aim of accounting for the factors that constrain its distribution. It is proposed that both event types and temporal structure should be taken into consideration. It has been pointed out that the occurrence of the aspect marker -zhe with V1 in SVCs requires that V1 denoted an unbounded eventuality. That is, when the first subevent of an SVC is an activity, a stage-level state, or a semelfactive, the aspect marker -zhe must occur in the SVC, whereas when the first subevent of an SVC is an accomplishment, an achievement, or an individual-level state, the aspect marker -zhe must not occur. In addition, the aspect marker -zhe is obligatory when the two subevents have full overlapping temporal structure, while it is prohibited when there is no or partial overlap in temporal structure. Moreover, we have explained why an SVC without -zhe may have multiple readings, but the ambiguous readings disappear when it occurs with the aspect marker -zhe.
Serial verb construction 连动式 Aspect marker 时貌标记 zhe 着 Event structure 事件结构 Temporal sequence 时间顺序原则
现代汉语的双音节黏着形式："以前" 和 "以后"
Feng-his Liu 刘凤樨; Christopher Oakden 欧念祖
This study argues that along with an increasing number of monosyllabic bound morphemes, Modern Mandarin has begun to add disyllabic bound forms to its inventory of linguistic elements. Yiqian ‘before’ and yihou ‘after’ are two such examples. The behavior of phrase-final yiqian/yihou indicates that they are not nouns, postpositions, word affixes or phrasal affixes; rather, they are nominal bound forms at the phrasal-level. Thus they constitute a new category in the domain of morpho-syntax. It is suggested that the emergence of these bound forms is a consequence of the early origin and the frequency with which they occur at the phrase-final position.
本文主要探讨以前 和以后 在现代汉语里的定位。通过各种试测，我们认为词组尾端的以前 和以后 既非名词，也非后置词，词缀，或词组后缀；二者为词组里具名词性的一种粘着形式，为构词语法领域的新单位。这显示现代汉语不但单音节的粘着性词根在不断增加，双音节的粘着形式也开始出现。此形式的出现与以前，以后 在词组尾端的起源位置和在此位置出现的频率有关。
Morphology 构词法 Disyllabic bound forms 双音节粘着形式 Frequency 频率
he authors pointed out the defects in the definition of boundary tone by Crystal (1997). The observation on duration ratio and fluctuating scale of pitch shows that although boundary tone and focus tone are overlapped sometimes, they have different domain that can be separated from each other. For example, boundary tone prefers to raise the top line of the pitch interval, while focus tone prefers to lower the bottom line. Boundary tone appears at every boundary of the utterance while focus tone at given positions only. The present paper demonstrated that it is necessary and feasible to distinguish between boundary tone and focus tone in the analysis of intonation.
Boundary tone 边界调 Focus tone 焦点调 Intonation system 语调系统 Fluctuating scale 起伏度 Duration ratio 停延率
John C. Wakefield 庄域飞
The study reported in this paper exploited the existence of a pair of semantically related Cantonese question particles (me1 and aa4) to learn more about the forms and meanings of the tones that mark declarative questions in English. First each particle was defined using Wierzbicka’s (1996) natural semantic metalanguage (NSM). Cantonese-to-English translations were then elicited from native-bilinguals to discover the English-equivalent forms of the particles. The NSM explications proposed for me1 and aa4 are hypothesized to apply equally to their English-equivalent forms. The results of this study provide empirical evidence that suggests there are at least two forms of rising declaratives in English with distinct meanings. It is argued that high-rising (but not mid-rising) declaratives express a prior belief in the negative form of their propositional content. The conclusions of this study add some significant and meaningful details to Gunlogson’s (2003) study, which, as far as the author knows, is the most thorough treatment of the meaning of rising declaratives to date.
本文通过研究一对意义相关的粤语提问助词（“咩”和“呀”）来进一步了解英语提问陈述句中声调的形式和意义。本文首先用Wierzbicka (1996)的“自然语义原语言”来定义“咩”及“呀”的含义；然后诱发母语双语者进行粤英翻译，进而发现英语中对应的形式。研究假设“自然语义原语言”对“咩”及“呀”的定义同样可适用于其对应的英语形式。研究结果提供的实证表明英语升调陈述句中至少有两种意义不同的形式。高升调（非中升调）陈述句表达说话者说话前一直持有对句子命题内容相反的看法。Gunlogson (2003)是迄今为止最为详尽的英语升调陈述句意义的研究。本研究结论则在Gunlogson研究的基础上补充了某些重要及有意义的细节。
Cantonese question particles 粤语提问助词 Sentence-final particles 句末助词 Rising declaratives 升调陈述句 Queclaratives 提问陈述句 me1 咩 aa4 呀
Chao-Yang Lee 李照阳; Yu Zhang 张宇; Ximing Li 李菥蓂
Acoustic analysis was conducted to identify the acoustic correlates for the place distinction in Mandarin voiceless fricatives. Eleven spectral, amplitude, and duration measures that have been shown to classify fricatives in English were analyzed to evaluate whether they can similarly classify fricatives in Mandarin. The results showed that each place contrast was associated with at least two measures, but no single measure classified all fricatives. The measures that were most effective in classifying fricative place also differed between the two languages. These results were interpreted in terms of the articulatory-acoustic relationship in the context of the acoustic theory of speech production.
Mandarin 普通话 Fricatives 擦音 Acoustic analysis 声学分析
There are four circumadverbials “zai(再)…cou(凑), “chongxin(重新)…guo(过), xian(先)…qi(起), si(死)…si(死)”in Yushan dialect. They can be put into two categories: fixed and semifixed, according to their successive capability in usage. The circumadverbials comply with their corresponding pre-adverbials and post-adverbials in meaning and function, but differ in emotional coloring, which is a blending phenomenon of literary terms and dialectal terms due to the superposition of pre-adverbials and post-adverbials. The post-adverbials within must be the primordiality of the post-adverbials in the southern ethnic peoples’ languages. Most of the post-adverbials are weakening in pronunciation and function, which is different in Cantonese.
Yushan dialect 玉山方言 Circumadverbials 框式状语 Superposition 叠置 Weakening 弱化 Category 类型
Ruijing Wang 王瑞晶; Caicai Zhang 张偲偲
Long-term experience with a classifier language influences the speakers’ similarity judgment of everyday objects. Previous studies found that speakers of a classifier language, but not speakers of a non-classifier language, judge two objects that can be categorized by a common classifier to be more similar (e.g. Zhang and Schmitt 1998; Saalbach and Imai 2007, 2012). In the literature, two hypotheses have been proposed to account for the classifier effect. The category-based classifier hypothesis emphasizes the classifier-noun collocation relationship as the factor influencing similarity judgment. The feature-based classifier hypothesis suggested that speakers pay more attention to features like shape and animacy that are explicitly expressed via classifiers. Nevertheless, these two hypotheses are not mutually exclusive. In the present study, three experiments were carried out to test an integrated hypothesis that both collocation relationship and classifier feature contribute to the classifier effect interactively. Experiment 1 was a linguistic survey of the classifier-noun collocation in two classifier languages, Mandarin and Cantonese. Experiment 2A and 2B tested the category-based and feature-based hypotheses with similarity judgment tasks in Mandarin and Cantonese, which have different classifier-noun collocations but largely similar distribution of classifier features. Experiment 3 proposed and tested the gradient classifier model which emphasizes the integrated effect of collocation relationship and classifier feature. Findings of this study suggest that long-term language experience influences the speaker’s preferred way of observing objects, and provide a finer interpretation of the nature of the classifier effect.
Linguistic relativity 语言相对论 Classifier category 量词类 Classifier feature 量词特征 Similarity judgment 相似度判断 Mandarin 普通话 Cantonese 广东话
Jiahong Yuan 袁家宏; Yiya Chen 陈轶亚
In Standard Chinese, a low tone (Tone3) is often realized with a rising F0 contour before another low tone; this tone change is known as the 3rd tone sandhi. This study investigated the acoustic characteristics of the 3rd tone sandhi in Standard Chinese in telephone conversations and broadcast news speech. The sandhi rising tone was found to be different from the lexical rising tone (Tone2) in disyllabic words in two measures: the magnitude of the F0 rise and the time span of the F0 rise. We also found that word frequency affected the realization of the sandhi rising tone. Specifically, the sandhi rising tone in highly frequent words exhibited a smaller F0 rise (i.e., a greater difference from the lexical rising tone) than that observed in less frequent words. This result suggests that different processes may be involved in producing high- vs. low-frequency words in Chinese.
本文通过对普通话电话交谈(HKUST Mandarin Telephone Speech)和新闻广播(Hub4 Mandarin Broadcast NewsSpeech)大语料库的分析来研究上声连读变调的声学实现。我们发现上声连读变调的升调调形和阳平的升调调形在基频上升幅度和上升转折点这两个参数上都有所不同。另外，词频对上声连读变调和阳平本调调形的影响也是不同的。连读变调的升调在高频词中的上升幅度比在低频词中小，也就是说，高频词中的上声连读变调和阳平本调更加不同。这一结果表明汉语高频词和低频词在言语生成层面存在差异。
Tone 声调 Tone sandhi 连读变调 Telephone conversation 电话交谈 Radio news 新闻广播 Corpus 语料库
Guo Li 李果; Quansheng Xia 夏全胜
The 5th International Conference in Evolutionary Linguistics (CIEL-5) took place in the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK), August 17-19, 2013. The conference was jointly organized by CUHK Department of Linguistics and Modern Languages, Department of Chinese Language and Literature, Childhood Bilingualism Research Centre, Faculty of Arts, the University of Hong Kong (HKU) State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) Department of Chinese and Bilingual Studies, and the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK). A total of 77 scholars from China, France, Korea, Japan, Singapore and the U.S. attended the conference. There were 6 keynote speeches, 40 oral presentations and 13 poster presentations featuring four major themes: language and population evolution, language as a complex adaptive system, language and the brain, and diachronic and synchronic study of language. Both English and Chinese were working languages of the conference. (Most materials of CIEL-5 are available on the following website: http://www.cuhk.edu.hk/lin/ciel5/en_index.html)
第五届演化语言学国际研讨会(CIEL-5)于2013年8月17日至8月19日在香港中文大学召开。来自中国、美国、法国、日本、韩国、新加坡的36所大学和研究机构的77位专家学者参加了此次会议。 本次会议集中讨论的主题包括：语言作为一个复杂适应系统、语言与人类进化、语言的历时与共时研究、语言与大脑。会议共有6个主题报告，40个口头报告和13个海报展示。 会议的6个主题报告是（按发言顺序）：
1. “Some Issues in Language Evolution”（语言演化的若干问题）
William S-Y. Wang 王士元, 香港中文大学;
2. “Language Evolution: Current Controversies and the Challenges of Multi-disciplinary Research”(语言演化：来自多学科研究的争议和挑战)
Michael A. Arbib, 美国南加州大学;
3. “The Neurobiology of Speech and Reading”（言语和阅读的神经生物学基础）
Kenneth R. Pugh, 美国耶鲁大学哈斯金实验室;
4. “Brain Mechanisms of Reading: Universal or Culture-specific”（阅读的脑神经机制: 是普遍的还是由文化决定的）
5. “Syntactico-semantic Change in Chinese: Processes of Analogy, Reanalysis, External Borrowing”(汉语中的句法语义演变: 类推、重新分析和外借过程)
Alain Peyraube, 法国国家科学研究中心;
6. “Nouns and Verbs: Evolution of Grammatical Forms”（名词和动词：语法形式的演变）
会议有关资料可在 http://www.cuhk.edu.hk/lin/ciel5/en_index.html 下载。 第六届演化语言学会议将于2014年在厦门大学召开。
On December 8, 2013, the inauguration signing ceremony of The Joint Research Centre for Language and Human Complexity (JRCLHC) was held at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, officiated by the presidents of the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK), Prof. Joseph Sung (沈祖堯), of Peking University (PU), Prof. Wang Enge (王恩哥), and of the University System of Taiwan (UST), Prof. Ovid Tzeng (曾志朗), along with their inauguration addresses to this new Joint Research Centre across the greater China region for interdisciplinary linguistics studies. They were joined by Prof. Kenneth Pugh, Director of Haskins Laboratory, USA, along with his ceremony address; Prof. Jou Jing-Yang (周景揚), President of Taiwan Central University; Prof. Wu Yan-Hwa (吳研華), President of Taiwan Chiao Tung University; Prof. Liang Kung-Yee (梁廣義), President of Taiwan Yang Ming University; Prof. Leung Yuen Sang (梁元生), Dean of Faculty of Art, CUHK; and Prof. William S-Y. Wang(王士元), Director of The Joint Research Centre for Language and Human Complexity, CUHK at the plaque-unveiling ceremony. Dozens of guests from Hong Kong, mainland China and Taiwan witnessed the historic moment. The establishment of the Joint Research Centre will strengthen ties between scholars of CUHK, Peking University and UST toward long and sustainable collaboration, and help bring the research development to new heights of excellence. (see CPRO 2013) The directors of the three centers for cross-institution joint research are respectively: William S-Y. Wang (王士元), Chen Baoya ( 陳保亞), and Ovid J. L. Tzeng (曾志朗). A preliminary discussion of the Joint Research Centre by W. S-Y. Wang appears on pp.38-43 in the December 2013 issue of《科學中國人》 (Scientific Chinese). Prof. Wang’s speech in Chinese at the inauguration signing ceremony for the Joint Research Centre (Wang 2013: 250-252) and the “Mission Statement” of the Joint Centre in English (JRCLHC 2013: http://clhc.cuhk.edu.hk/mission.html) further envisioned its research direction and strategies. A shared vision for the three partners is to understand human complexity through multidisciplinary research on language, using the complementary methods of linguistic fieldwork (especially minority languages), and laboratory experiments (especially in cognitive neuroscience).
William S-Y. Wang 王士元
感谢三位校长的支持。我想简短地谈谈我们这个联合中心的使命。人类的确是非常独特的动物。十万年前走出了非洲，移居到地球的每一个角落 (Stringer 2012)。一万年前开始了耕种，人口就飞跃似地增长。五百年前发展出科学方法，创造了地球前所未有的复杂文化。可是我们对“人究竟是什么？”这个基本问题，知道得实在非常少。
人能够如此独一无二地发展，是因为发明了变化无穷的语言。语言让我们的思想超越空间及时间的限制，可以天马行空地想象种种可能及不可能的情境 (Jacob 1982)。也让我们的大脑得以不断地创造日新月异的世界。所以我们这个联合研究中心，最重要的目标就是研究语言、大脑、文化这三者互动演化的复杂关系，基于它来了解人的本性。
这个领域20世纪初就已经有很多进展 (Whorf 1956)。而从20世纪末起，由于认知神经科学的突破，也有不少团队用不同的神经成像方法研究文化如何影响大脑的成长、大脑如何表现语言的运作、语言如何反映文化的结构等等问题。可是目前这方面的报告绝大部分来自欧美语言及文化的研究，不能作为一般性的代表拿来回答整个人类的问题。
大中华地区几十个民族的语言及文化 (王 2013)显然具备非常重要的特点，蕴含丰富的学术价值。我们的使命就是同时进行田野工作 (汪 2013) 和大脑实验，来统整地研究人的本性 (曾 2013)。研究的成果一定会让我们更深一步认识语言的生物基础，来帮我们了解母语和文字的习得与外语学习，幷进一步协助治疗失语、失读、老年语言退化等病症，替社会做些具体的贡献。
Edwin G. Pulleyblank, a towering figure for over half a century in Chinese linguistics and Chinese history, passed away in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, on Saturday, 13 April 2013, at the age of 90, surrounded by his loving family. He is survived by his wife, Yihong Pan; his sister, Grace Craig; his three children, David Edwin, Barbara Jill, and Marcia Ruth Pulleyblank; his daughter-in-law, Barbara Merle Pulleyblank; and his three grandchildren, Amber Lynn Pulleyblank, Ryan Wyeth Pulleyblank and Coren Elizabeth Pulleyblank.
Volume 42, No 2
Huayun Wang 汪化云; Daogen Cao 曹道根
Demonstrative interjections such as ʨie31po35 (绝播), po35 (播), and ʨio35 in the Huangxiao cluster of Jianghuai Mandarin are used exclusively for reference in the speech situation (here-and-now reference). With respect to pronunciation, demonstrative interjections in most dialects of the cluster are relatable to the proximal demonstrative alone, while only in a very small handful of dialects are they related to the distal demonstrative alone. In some dialects of the cluster, however, they are connected with proximal and distal pronouns at the same time, while in some others, demonstrative interjections that distinguish between proximal ones and distal ones have their pronunciations respectively related to proximal and distal pronouns. Presumably, demonstrative interjections are derived from the rhetorical question ʨiɛ35(/na34) pu213sɿ34 •ti (这/那不是的) through sound ellipsis, sound weakening or other types of sound change. Compared with na21 (嗱) and ne21 (呢) in the Guangzhou Dialect of Guangzhou City, and tʂɤ51pu51-35 (这不) in Mandarin Chinese, demonstrative interjections in the Huangxiao Dialect have completed their lexicalization process though they are still at the early stage of grammaticalisation.
Huangxiao cluster 黄孝方言 Demonstrative interjection 指示叹词 Rhetorical question 反问句 Grammaticalisation 语法化 Lexicalization 词汇化
In each known Naish language, there is at least one retroflex final; this paper describes the distributions of retroflex finals in five Naish languages spoken in Yunnan. Through sound correspondence analysis, this paper traces the origin of retroflex finals in Naish languages and explains related sound changes from Proto-Naish to modern dialects. The law of retroflex final evolution recognizes that the historical development of these finals had spread from west to east—the further east, the more finals have emerged from splitting, and the less the words have retroflex elements, while a new round of retroflexion is on the rise in eastern most languages.
Naish languages 纳西语 Naxi Retroflex 卷舌韵母 final Sound correspondence 语音对应 Proto-Naish 原始纳西语
Chia-lu Chiang 江佳璐
Sino-Vietnamese is one of the important sources for reconstructing Chinese phonological history. The phenomenon of some lai (來) initial words pronounced as s- in Sino-Vietnamese is often considered as the evidence of consonant clusters in Old Chinese. This study reanalyzed the Lai initial words pronounced as s- in Sino-Vietnamese according to the phonological histories of both Chinese and Vietnamese, from the aspect of language contact. Examination on Austro-Asiatic cognates and analysis of phonological strata were proposed in order to check the validity of their origin. It is found that not all of these s- lai initial words are from the same origin but from multiple sources. Some of them were borrowed from Old Chinese. Some of them were borrowed from late southern Chinese dialects. And some of them are not from Chinese origin and cannot be considered as the evidence for reconstructing Old Chinese.
Chinese loanwords 汉语借词 Sino-Vietnamese 越南汉字音 lai initial 来母字 Old Chinese 上古汉语 Language contact 语言接触
Rui Peng 彭睿
In modern Mandarin, zaishuo 再说is used as either a modal particle (zaishuo1) or a conjunction (zaishuo2). Zaishuo1 and zaishuo2 can be traced back to the same historical source, i.e., the verbal phrase zai+shuo, formed by the adverb zai再 ‘again’ and verb shuo说 ‘to say.’ The zai+shuo string has developed along two paths, characteristic of polygrammaticalization chains, with four stages each. One path leads to the emergence of zaishuo1, which occurs sentence-finally to indicate speaker/writer’s subjective prioritization of the ordering of handling different matters, whereas the other path leads to the emergence of zaishuo2, which occurs sentence-initially and is a discourse connector signaling further argument for a previously stated opinion, roughly equivalent to “besides” or “moreover” in English. The basis for the justification of the emergence of both uses of zaishuo 再说 is pragmatic inferring.
现代汉语词串“再说”代表了两个功能词，一是句末助词(记为“再说1”)，二是连词(记为 “再说2”)。“再说1”和“再说2”都来源于由副词 “再”和动词“说”构成的短语。“再+说”短语沿着两条不同的路径演变。每条路径都有四个不同发展阶段，两条路径一起形成了多重语法化链。其中一条路径产生了“再说1”，通常用于句末，表达言者或作者对处理不同事情的顺序的主观选择。另一条路径产生了“再说2” ，通常出现于句首，具有语篇连接的功能，引入新论据对先前提出的观点进行补充，大致相当于英语中的besides 或者moreover。语用推理是判断这两个功能词产生的重要依据。
Polygrammaticalization chains 多重语法化链 Grammaticalization path 语法化路径 Pragmatic inference 语用推理 Fusion 融合 Demotivation 去理据化
This article demonstrates the phonological similarities between the Min dialects and Sino-Paekche Korean, which was used in the southwestern part of the Korean peninsula from the first century B.C. till the seventh century A.D. Since Paekche had frequent contacts with the capitals of Eastern Jin and other states of the Southern Dynasties, the author rejects the Min dialects as being the direct source of Sino-Paekche Korean. Instead, the author claims that Old Wu was the origin of Sino-Paekche Korean as well as the Min dialects. It is because if the northern dialects of the central plain were the source of Min, the Min dialects could not preserve more traces of Old Chinese than the Wu dialects. It is plausible to assume that the northern dialects of the central plain must have undergone more changes than the Wu dialects of that time. If it is so, there is no way to explain why the colloquial readings of the Min dialects reflect much earlier traces of Chinese than the Wu dialects. Accordingly, this article claims that Sino-Paekche Korean and the Min dialects share the Old Wu dialects of the Southern Dynasties as their source dialects.
Sino-Paekche Korean 百济汉字音 Min dialects 闽方言 Wu dialects 吴方言 Northern dialects of central plain 中原北方方言 Source dialects 方言源
This study investigates end-state mental grammars in L2 acquisition, testing between the Full Transfer/Full Access (FT/FA) hypothesis (Schwartz and Sprouse 1994, 1996) and the Interface hypothesis (Sorace and Filiaci 2006). The former proposes L1 transfer and input-driven L2 ultimate attainment; the latter argues against L1 transfer and suggests native non-native mental-grammar divergence is a result of mismatch between syntax and cognitive domains coordination. The results of a grammaticality judgment test show that the English speakers of advanced L2 Chinese develop grammatical representations that are target-like in performance in most cases, supporting the FT/FA hypothesis. However, it is also observed that the learners diverge from native speakers in disallowing the use of stative verbs in long and short passives in their L2 Chinese. This may suggest the learners have insufficient processing resources to coordinate between syntax and semantics learning, supporting the Interface hypothesis. Put together the stative verbs deficit and the target-like L2 performance in advanced learners’ L2 grammars, the study coheres with Hawkins and Hattori (2006) and Kong (2011a, 2011b, 2012) that the apparent native-like performance may not be interpreted as the same as learners having acquired the underlying grammatical representations of native speakers.
这项研究在调查二语习得中最终型态的心理语法，且用以测试Schwartz和Sprouse (1994,1996) 的完整性转移／完全性接纳(FT/FA)假设与Sorace和Filiaci(2006) 的介面性假设。前者提倡母语转移和输入驱动中的二语最终成果；后者则反驳母语转移，而是提出在英语为母语者的心理语法中句法与认知领域之间不协调的结论。语法判断结果显示进阶汉语的英语学习者在大多情况下，展现出在行为上与目标语相似的语法表达，此证明FT/FA假设。然而，这也被观察出在汉语学习上的长短被动句上不允许静态动词的使用，与母语者产生了分歧。这可能表明学习者在句法和语意学习上有着不足的现象，而此论点支持介面性假设。结合这两点－静态动词匮乏与进阶汉语学习者似目标语的二语表现－该研究与Hawkins和Hattori (2006) 和Kong (2011a, 2011b, 2012)所提出的论点一致：显著的母语似行为可能无法被解释等同于学习者习获母语底层语法的表达。
Long and short passives 长短式被动句 L2 Chinese 汉语习得
马士曼所记录之粤语音 -- 十八世纪末的澳门方言
Masayuki Yoshikawa 吉川雅之
Along with Robert Morrison, Joshua Marshman is renowned for being a pioneer of Protestant missionary who translated the Bible into Chinese and for his studies on Chinese. Two of his books, The works of Confucius containing the original text and Dissertation on the characters and sounds of the Chinese language, were published by the Mission Press in Serampore, India in 1809. In them, he used the Romanized transcription for Cantonese pronunciation, the phonological features of which are examined in this paper with respect to initials and rimes. This paper identifies the dialect of Cantonese reflected by the transcription through a comparison of some Cantonese dialects found in nineteenth-century materials. Then, using these materials, the paper determines the speaker in the transcription. The conclusion reached is that the Romanized transcription is a reflection of the Macao dialect and that the speaker is an Armenian youth, Johannes Lassar, who helped Marshman translate the Bible into Chinese.
Early Cantonese 早期粤语 Macao dialect 澳门话 Pronunciation of Chinese character 字音 Material written in European language 欧文资料 Johannes Lassar 拉沙 Chinese translation of the Bible 汉译圣经
汉藏语的ŋ- 及纳得内语的 *kw- / *gw- / *xw-: 第一人称代词及词汇同源组
This paper provides evidence for a genetic relationship between the Sino-Tibetan and Na-Dene language families, by making a comparison between Na-Dene lexical forms with initial *kw- / *gw- / *xw- and Sino-Tibetan forms with initial ŋ-, which are the initial consonants of the 1st person singular pronominal forms in the respective families. The paper reviews some parallels in Sino-Tibetan and Na-Dene verbal morphology and describes each family’s 1st person singular pronominal forms. It then presents the results of a study of all Athabaskan and Na-Dene lexical roots that have initial consonants with the same place of articulation as the 1st person pronouns, and identifies 21 such roots as candidates for comparison with Sino-Tibetan. Out of these roots, five cognate sets with Sino-Tibetan roots with initial ŋ- are then presented. Finally, a statistical estimate is calculated of the probability of this amount of resemblances occurring by chance, which is found to be extremely small.
本文通过比较纳德内语系中使用前缀 *kw- / *gw- / *xw- 构词的方法和汉藏语系使用前缀ŋ-构词的方法（这些前缀在各自语系内均为第一人称单数代名词的起始辅音），为两个语系之间所存在的亲缘关系提供证据。本文将回顾一些有关汉藏语系和纳德内语系中动词构词法的文献，并对两个语系内的第一人称单数代名词的情况作描述。接着我们会对所有阿萨巴斯卡语系和纳德内语系中作为第一人称代名词时具有相同发音位置的词首辅音的词根进行研究，本文会对此研究的结果进行阐述，同时也会从这个词根研究出发，在这些语系之间作横向比较。之后，我们会总结出五组以前缀ŋ-开头的汉藏语系词根源词。最后，我们再做一个有关词语相似性的统计，结果发现相似出自巧合的可能性很低。
Sino-Tibetan 汉藏语 Na-Dene 纳得内语 Comparative linguistics 比较语言学 1st person pronoun 第一人称代词 Sound correspondence 音位对应 Statistics 统计（语言学）
书评：濮与中华民族 金钟 著
Bit-Chee Kwok 郭必之
Jin Zhong’s book Pu and the Chinese Nation is a new attempt at interpreting place names, names of ethnic groups and personal names in China by drawing on linguistic methods. The highlight of the book is to discuss the centrality of Pu 濮 (or Pu Yue 濮越) in Chinese history and its relationship with the Han 漢 and other ethnic minorities in China. While the author’s eagerness to fill an important research gap and to revolutionize our perception of Pu is commendable, the work appears to be a work-in-progress rather than a finished product because many fundamental issues in its logic of argumentation, methods and evidence remain to be addressed.
Pu 濮 Zhuang 壮 Early China 早期中国 Linguistics analysis for historical studies 语言学分析历史
Tao Gong 龚涛; Lam Yau Wai 林攸蔚; Chen Xinying 陈芯莹; Zhang Menghan 张梦翰
In this paper, by briefly reviewing the keynote speeches and pre-conference workshops of Evolang10, we revisited the flourishing development of evolutionary linguistics in the past two decades, and gave three comments on Evolang conference series, including: (a) reconsideration of the repulsive attitude toward historical linguistics research; (b) future directions of modeling and experimental studies; and (c) necessity of pragmatics and neuroscience explorations in evolutionary linguistics. In the end, we summarized the key contributions from Chinese scholars to evolutionary linguistics, rich linguistic resources in China, possible facets where Chinese scholars can make significant contributions, and current status of evolutionary linguistics research in China. We welcome and encourage more Chinese scholars to step into evolutionary linguistics and make our contributions to this booming field.
Evolutionary linguistics 演化语言学 Modeling 模拟仿真 Pragmatics 语用学 Neuroscience 脑科学
Contents and titles of recent publication include
Vol. 42, No. 2 (2013) of The Cahiers de Linguistique – Asie Orientale (CLAO) , France
Vol. 49 (2014) of Yuyanxue luncong 语言学论丛 (Essays on Linguistics) edited by Center for Chinese Linguistics of Peking University (CCLPKU), China and
First Step：An Elementary Reader for Modern Chinese, published by Princeton University Press (PUP), USA.
中国北京大学汉语研究中心(CCLPKU) 的《语言学论丛》第49 辑 (2014) 及
美国普斯顿大学 (PUP) 2014 出版社的 First Step：An Elementary Reader for Modern Chinese
Xiamen University 厦门大学； The Chinese Anthropological Society 中国人类学学会
The 6th International Conference in Evolutionary Linguistics (CIEL-6) will be held November 21-23, 2014 at Xiamen University [Fujian, China]. Registration will be on Nov. 21, and the conference is during Nov. 22-23. The previous annual conferences successfully held [in China at] Guangzhou, Tianjin, Shanghai, Beijing and Hong Kong have consolidated the platform for international interdisciplinary exchange on Evolutionary Linguistics research, which has promoted the development of Evolutionary Linguistics. Xiamen University is honored to hold this conference in 2014 and sincerely invites scholars interested in this field to attend the conference. In recent years, owing to collaborative research on linguistics, anthropology, archeology, biology, genetics, neuroscience, etc., research in evolutionary linguistics has made great progress internationally and achieved substantial results. The abundant language resources, unique writing system, and complex effects of linguistic contact in China all provide vital resources for evolutionary linguistics research, and Chinese evolutionary linguistics research provides helpful references for universal language evolution research. Therefore, there is much anticipation of enhancing international interaction and interdisciplinary cooperation via this conference.
消息: 台湾认知神经科学暑期学校 （2014.9， 台北）
National Central University 国立中央大学
Date: 9 – 13 September 2014; Venue: National Central University; Address: No. 300, Jhongda Rd., Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32001, Taiwan website: http://icn.ncu.edu.tw/2014summer.aspx 2014 Summer School for Cognitive Neuroscience (2014台灣認知神經科學暑期學校) will be held by National Central University and National Yang Ming University in Taiwan (two top universities in Taiwan and members of the University System of Taiwan) in 2014. The program includes several research topics involving cognitive processes such as reading, memory, aging, action, perception, attention, cognitive control, decision making, and emotion. It is an important annual event in cooperation with Joint Research Center for Language and Human Complexity (JRCLHC), a collaboration among Peking University, Chinese University of Hong Kong, and the University System of Taiwan. Many prestigious speakers are invited from Mainland China (PKU), Hong Kong (CUHK), and Taiwan. Background: Initiative in December 2013, JRCLHC, a collaboration among Peking University, Chinese University of Hong Kong, and the University System of Taiwan, provides a research platform which adopts a multi-method/multi-variable approach to investigate language evolution and its impact on the developments of human mind at different levels of complexity with respect to the conceptual bases of the so-called five O’s: info, cogno, techno, bio, and geno. Two projects the center contributed to recently including the non-credit seminar series ‘Biological Foundations of Language’ and Summer School for Cognitive Neuroscience. (http://clhc.cuhk.edu.hk/index.html) Goal: The objective of the Summer School is to bring together students from Hong Kong, Taiwan and Mainland China, in order to promote and advance the development of cognitive neuroscience research. Activities: This year’s summer school program consists of mini-symposiums, experiments, film appreciation events, discussions, debate as well as group reports and presentations. Participants will also have the opportunities to explore the latest technologies, such as electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), eye-tracking, motion capture, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Courses will be conducted in English and Mandarin. More information on website: http://icn.ncu.edu.tw/2014summer.aspx
为推广并促进台湾在认知神经科学研究的发展，提升国际能见度与竞争力，由多位台湾杰出研究人员共同策画2014年认知神经科学暑期学校，在教育部「台港顶 尖大学学术交流计画」的支持下，力邀香港中文大学者来台进行学术交流互动，透过认知神经科学、语言学及文化研究领域的学者发挥学术专长，推动相关学科发 展，培育跨领域研究之优秀人才，目标在推动人才进行跨界研究，拓展国际学术研究领域。本期暑期学校将遴选台、港、中两岸三地大学二、三、四年级学生与研究 生。初阶课程内容涵盖脑及心智功能研究工具以及语言、注意力、记忆与老化等研究议题的介绍；进阶课程以实际操作认知神经科学相关应用工具并进行资料分析为 主，藉以启发学员对认知神经科学研究的兴趣，增加台湾认知神经科学的研究新血与动能。