Journal of Chinese Linguistics Vol.43 – 2015

Volume 43, No 1A

Article 文章

Abstract 摘要
There are three kinds of kang7 共 attested in the sixteenth century and later Southern Min playscripts as well as the Chinese-character and Romanized Southern Min texts compiled by Spanish missionaries in the seventeenth century: (1) kang7 共 expressing relationship of co-participation, (2) kang7 共 exhibiting a unilateral relationship, and (3) kang7 共 showing a co-ordinate relationship. Ka7 as a reflex of kang7 共 is limited to the unilateral relationship construction in modern Taiwanese Southern Min. Thus, there is a lexical replacement by which kang7 共 claiming both a co-participation relationship and a co-ordinate relationship in earlier times is replaced by kap4/kah4 合 or its dialectal variants such as tsham1 摻, ham7 含 and kiau1 交 in Taiwanese Southern Min. However, the situation concerning the constructional types claimed by 共 vis-à-vis 合 is somewhat different if we take other modern Southern Min varieties such as Quanzhou, Zhangzhou and Chaozhou into consideration. Quanzhou seems to be more conservative than Zhangzhou and Chaozhou in that kang7 共 holds faster to its original domain.

 

在十六世纪以降的早期闽南戏文和西班牙传教士所编撰的十七世纪闽南语汉字或罗马字文本中kang7「共」出现于三种构式:(1) kang7(协同构式)、(2) kang7(单边构式)、(3) kang7(对等连接构式)。但在现代台湾闽南语中ka7作为早期kang7「共」的现代后裔只限用于非协同构式。因此协同构式和对等连接构式先前由kang7「共」统辖,现在让位给kap4/kah4「合」或是其他的方言变体,如chham1「掺」、ham7「含」和kiau1「交」。不过如果把其他现代闽南方言(如泉州话、漳州话、潮州话)也列入考虑,「共」相对于「合」所涵盖的构式情况就多少有些差异,也就是说,泉州话比漳州话、潮州话保守,即泉州话中「共」还多少守住了kang7「共」在早期闽南语的格局。
 

Keywords 关键词

Co-participation 协同   Unilateral 单边的   conjunction 对等连接   Diachrony 历时   Dialectal variation 方言差异   Southern Min 闽南语

Abstract 摘要
The features of tones contact have been investigated between Xiang Dialect and Gan Dialect, by using the method of tone pattern in this paper. It is showed that the “transition” feature of the mixed dialect reflects in similar features of tones between mixed dialect and ancestor dialect or between mixed tones and target dialect,which includes as follows: the balance of the tone number, the mixing of tone category, the similarity of tone value, and the correlation of tone contour.

 

以湘语、赣语的接触为个案考察,利用声调格局的方法,分析了方言接触在声调上的表现。方言接触中的混合方言的声调具有“过渡”的特点,与始发方言或目的方言具有一定的相似性,具体表现为:调数相近、调类相混、调值相似、调型相联。

 

Keywords 关键词

Dialect contact 方言接触 Tone number 调数 Tone category 调值 Tone value 调类 Tone contour 调型

Abstract 摘要
Cantonese contains a range of NP forms which are ambiguous with respect to referentiality and definiteness (e.g., 個人 go yahn ‘a/the man’). Accessibility theory (Ariel 2001) predicts that entities which are salient in the discourse will be introduced using forms with more linguistic material, and referred back to using forms with less linguistic material. Previous studies of Standard Written Chinese have found that more topical entities are introduced using fuller NP forms (Sun 1988; Li 2000). A study of online love-advice narratives reveals that, in the case of new items, fuller NP forms in Vernacular Written Cantonese are more frequently used for more topical, referential, and plural entities. For given items, however, contrary to the predictions of accessibility theory, topical entities and those with a previous reference using a longer NP form are associated with fuller, rather than more abbreviated, NP forms. These findings suggest that the desire to highlight topical entities may override the principle of accessibility in choice of NP form for given items in certain genres.

 

广东话中名词组可有指称与定指的歧异,例如,『个人』可指『一人 与 『那人』。根据可及性理论对名词组形式使用的规范(Ariel 2001),显着性高的名词在首次提及时会使用较复杂的形式,而在回指时使用较简单的形式。在(Sun 1988, Li 2000)以往的研究中提及,主题性越显着的名词 越有可能使用完整的名词组形式。本研究分析网上广东话书面语脚本『爱情烦恼』发现,新名词为主题、指称、复数时多用详细的名词组形式。与可及性理论相反的,显着性高的已知名词仍使用详细名词组形式,并无使用比较简单的名词组形式。此研究结果显示,在广东话书面语中,显着性高的已知名词不需遵守可及性理论中回指时使用简单形式的规范。

 

Keywords 关键词

Vernacular written Cantonese 广东话书面语 Discourse 话语 Accessibility 可及性 Noun Phrase structure 名词组 Zero anaphora 零形回指

Abstract 摘要
This paper critically reviews the previous consonant-based account of tonogensis, and modifies this theory by using some examples of relationship between initials and tones in Wu dialects of Chinese and other Southeast Asian tonal languages. I argue that the origin of the high and low tones is induced from different phonation types rather than different consonants, and specially, the breathy voice is a primary mechanism for lowering pitch. In accordance with the physiological and aerodynamics mechanisms involved in the production of voiced consonants, breathy voice and tone, I propose that there is a tendency for voice stop to cause breathy voice, and show how low tone evolved from breathy voice developed from voiced consonants. There are five parts in this paper. Part One. The brief introduction for consonant-based account of tonogensis; Part Two. The effects of prevocalic voiceless/voiced consonants on the F0 of following vowels; Part Three. The relationship between breathy voice and low tone; Part Four. The relationship between voiced stops and breathy voice; Part Five. Conclusion.

 

本文回顾声调起源辅音说理论,并总结前人对此理论的批判。用吴语及东南亚声调语言声母与声调关系的例子来修正此理论。本文认为声调高低的起源来自于不同的发声态而非起首辅音;气嗓音是导致声调降低的直接原因;声调的高低跟辅音的清浊没有直接的关系,只有间接的关联。根据发浊塞音的肌肉紧张原理及空气动力学说,本文认为浊塞音有引起气嗓音的倾向,气嗓音再引起低调。在此基础上本文提出声调高低来源及演变的模式:浊辅音à气嗓音à低调。全文分为五部分:1. 声调发生学理论与声调起源辅音说介绍;2. 清浊辅音对后接元音基频的影响;3. 气嗓音与低调;4. 浊辅音与气嗓音的关系;5.总结。

 

Keywords 关键词

Tonogensis 发声态 Phonation 气嗓音 Breathy voice 正常嗓音 Voiced consonant 浊辅音 Low tone 低调

Abstract 摘要
Norman (1979) proposes there are three strata dated from the Qin-Han, Southern dynasties and Late Tang period in the modern Min dialects respectively. Ting (1988, 1995) and Mei (1994, 2001) argue that the three strata also exist in the Wu dialects. Most of the previous studies focus on the comparison between the Southern Wu (SW) and Min and neglect the materials of Northern Wu (NW). Through comparative studies, strata analyses and referring to Chinese historical phonology, we assume that some phonological traits in NW, SW and Min all come from Qieyun or the Jiangdong dialect in the Southern dynasty. This paper also points out that although Wu dialects in southern Zhèjiāng are more similar to Min than Northern Wu, such places in NW as Dānyáng, Chángshú and “Chóngqĭhǎi” near Jinling geographically regarded as the center of the Jiangdong dialect, probably retain some early phonological traits in the Southern dynasties, which is also similar to modern SW and Min.

 

罗杰瑞(Norman 1979)最早提出闽语有秦汉、南朝、晚唐三个时间层次。丁邦新(1988,1995)、梅祖麟(1994、2001)等学者都曾撰文具体论证过现代吴语同样具有这三个层次。以往的研究大都只注意浙南吴语与闽语之间的音韵比较,对北部吴语的材料关注甚少。本文结合汉语音韵史,运用比较方法和层次分析法,提出北部吴语中的若干音韵特征也能反映南朝《切韵》的保守层次,其中多数可认为来自南朝的江东方言;由此,可以建立北部吴语、南部吴语、闽语三者之间的历史联系。文章还想说明,虽然南部吴语和北部相比,前者跟闽语具有更多的相似性,但作为南朝吴语的核心地带、南朝金陵的近畿,今丹阳、常熟、崇启海(崇明、启东、海门)一线的吴语,也可能和南部吴语、闽语一样保留了若干江东方言的音韵特征;北部吴语在吴闽比较中应具有一定的地位。

 

Keywords 关键词

Northern Wu 北部吴语 Phonological trait 音韵特征 The relationship between Wu and Min 吴闽关系 Chinese historical phonology 汉语音韵史 The Jiangdong dialect 江东方言

Abstract 摘要
The purpose of this article is to propose and prove that the well-known theory of markedness in language acquisition is also working in lexical borrowing. Principles of first language acquisition have widely been attested to operate in second language and/or foreign language acquisition. However, not much attention has been paid to the comparison between first language acquisition and lexical borrowing, although lexical borrowing also clearly involves similar processes and/or principles of foreign language acquisition in various forms. Specifically, we will show that fricatives of source language are changed to stops in target language, in parallel with the well-known phonological process that fricatives are realized as stops and that they are acquired later than stops in first language acquisition. Supporting evidence is provided from the comparison between general language acquisition data and strengthening of fricatives found in the lexical borrowing from Chinese by Vietnamese. In so doing, we will compare the alveolar fricatives in Chinese and their borrowed forms in Sino-Vietnamese and Sino-Korean.

 

本论文提出并证明在语言习得中被人所熟悉的标记理论也可以运用到语言借用中去。母语习得时采用的原则已经被广泛证实会在第二语言/外语习得中被使用;然而,语言借用有着相似的处理和原则,所以母语习得和外语借用间的比较一直不被人重视。具体来说,我们将指出起源语言中的摩擦音在目标语言中会变成塞音,这就相当于众所周知的音韵处理过程,即摩擦音被意识成塞音,它们在母语习得中比起塞音会较晚被习得。比较一般语言习得的资料和在越南语中借用中文时摩擦音发生闭塞的现象,我们可以从中得到证据。所以,我们将会比较现代汉语中的舌尖齿龈摩擦音和它们在越南汉字音和韩语汉字音中的被借用形式。

 

Keywords 关键词

Lexical borrowing 语言借用 language acquisition 语言习得 Sino-Vietnamese 越南汉字音 Sino-Korean Chinese 韩语汉字音 Stop Strengthening of fricative 摩擦音的闭塞 Fricativestop change 摩擦音塞音的转换

Abstract 摘要
This paper explores the interaction between eventive information and morpho-syntax based on Chinese VV compounds. Chinese VV Compounds’ identical morpho-syntactic structure represents different event relations between the two component words and the correct interpretation of the meaning of these compounds relies on the prediction on their event relations. Without overt syntactic clues, we propose that ontology-based conceptual classification can be used to predict the event relation between the two component words. Compounding is the most productive way to research multi-word expressions in Mandarin Chinese. A Mandarin VV compound can be classified according to the eventive relation between two simplex verbs, which specifies how the eventive meanings of the two simplex verbs combine to form the meaning of the compound. The way in which two events combine with each other depends upon their event types, and the three types of eventive relations that we deal with in this paper are coordinate, modificational, and resultative. Using an ontology-based prediction approach, we hypothesized that the eventive relations could be predicted by the conceptual classification of the two simplex verbs’ event types. First, we utilized SUMO and Sinica BOW to classify each simplex verb. Next, the correlation between the ontology-based classification of each verb position and each eventive type was scored using a manually tagged lexical database and a training set was established. Finally, we encoded the ontological information of each VV compound in a 3-tuple based on these correlation scores. This 3-tuple was represented as a three-dimensional vector and was used to predict the eventive type of the new VV compounds. The results of our findings show that the classification experiments on event relation of unknown VV compounds can be reliably predicted based on the ontological classification of their component words.

 

本文探讨概念结构和语法形态之间的相互作用。特别的是,我们将呈现以知识本体为本的概念分类,可以用来预测中文复合动词中两个组合词汇的语义关系。汉语中,复合词汇的组合是最常用来呈现多种词汇的表达。汉语复合动词的分类可以根据两个单一动词的事件关系,指定如何将两个单一动词结合的事件意义组合成一个复合动词,这个方法是取决于他们事件类型的结合。本文中,我们将处理三种不同的事件关系类型:协调一致的、修饰性的、结果性的。使用以知识本体的预测研究方法,我们假设事件关系可以靠着两个单一动词的事件类型的概念分类而被预测。首先,我们使用SUMO和Sinica BOW来对于每一个单一动词作分类;接着,在每一个动词基于知识本体为本的分类和事件类型的相关联性,取得以人工标记的词汇数据库,并建立训练语料;最后,我们根据这3组关联性的分数,编码每一个复合动词的知识本体信息。这3组关联性的分数代表一个三维向量并用来预测新复合动词的事件类型。我们的研究成果显示,对于未知复合动词的分类实验,其结果是可以得到确信的召回率和精确率。

 

Keywords 关键词

Mandarin Compound verb 中文复合动词 SUMO (Suggested Upper Merged Ontology) Ontology 知识本体 Conceptual structure 概念结构 Morpho-syntax 结构—语法

Abstract 摘要
This paper sets out to examine the problems which exist with the newly published Contemporary Chinese Dictionary (6th edition), with particular reference to the establishment of the definitions, exemplifications and word class labels of its entries, the selection of its neologisms, as well as its reader-friendly considerations. The examination is conducted based on the query results from available Chinese corpora, with an aim to highlight the urgent necessity of the use of large-scale corpora for Chinese lexicography. The study concludes that it is now imperative to build open-ended, large-scale and multimodal corpora of contemporary Chinese in order to lend assistance to Chinese lexicography.

 

本文基于汉语语料库(北大现代汉语语料库、2国家语委现代汉语语料库、3 中国传媒大学语料库及因特网语料库4)的检索结果,从词条释义、配例和词性的确立,新词新义的选择以及为读者所做的考虑等方面对比、探讨《现代汉语词典》(第6版)的可商榷之处,提出了大规模语料库在汉语词典编纂中的必要性和紧迫性。本文同时指出,现有的汉语语料库因其库容、年代、语体等的限制,在很大程度上已经难以满足词典编纂的需求,用于汉语词典编纂的大规模多模态的开放型语料库丞待建立。

 

Keywords 关键词

Corpus-based lexicography 语料库词典编纂 The Contemporary Chinese Dictionary (6th edition)《现代汉语词典》(第6版) Neologisms 新词新义

Discussion 讨论

Abstract 摘要
This paper presents a critical overview of previously proposed etymologies involving the initial cluster *sr– between Chinese and other Sino-Tibetan languages. It puts forth one new etymology, which confirms the simplification of the cluster *sr– to s– in Kiranti and the preservation of this cluster in Rgyalrong languages.

 

本文批判性的总结了以前关于汉语与汉藏语言之间关于各种*sr- 辅音声母群语源的提议。文章提出*sr- 新的语源;证实*st- 到 s- 在基兰提语言里的简化及*sr- 在嘉绒语言中的保存。

Abstract 摘要
The discovery of Liangdao man ca. 8,000 BP is academically significant. It may provide some clue for the Austronesian origin relating Taiwan and the southeast coast of China. We need interdisciplinary knowledge of archaeology, genetics and linguistics to make any meaningful study of such a case. The most recent genetic study indicates that the Liangdao man seems to be more closely related to modern Formosan natives than to the other peoples in South China and Southeast Asia. Ancient South China was almost exclusively populated by non-Chinese. There is linguistic evidence that the Austroasiatics inhabited the Yangtze delta and parts of the southeast coast during the first half of the first millennium B.C. Some of the Austroasiatic loanwords currently in Chinese in general and in Min are part of the basic vocabulary. This indicates the Chinese and Austroasiatics must have been in close contact for a long period of time before the first millennium B.C. The linguistic evidence for the genetic relationship between Austronesian and Austroasiatics is not very strong, but nevertheless exists. We can postulate that pre-Austronesian split apart from Austroasiatics in the southeast coast of China about 6,000 BP and dispersed to Taiwan to become proto-Austronesians.

 

八千多年前亮島人的發現,在學術研究上具有重大的意義。本文從考古學、遺傳學跟語言學跨領域的觀點來討論。亮島人的基因跟現代的台灣南島民族很類似,其次是菲律賓和印尼。史前時代在華南居住的都非漢人。語言學的證據顯示:公元前一世紀或更早南亞民族已經居住在長江三角洲一帶了。本文推測南島民族跟南亞民族的前身大約在六千年前才在華南沿海一帶分化,遷移到台灣以後才成為古南島民族。要證明南島民族跟南亞民族的親屬關係,大概不是傳統的比較方法(the comparative method)就可以達成的,構詞學可以提供必要的證據。

Review 书评

Abstract 摘要
This is a review of the book on a dialogue on sound change between William Labov and William S-Y. Wang at the Chinese University of Hong Kong in May 2012. First Labov’s and Wang’s Presentations are surveyed. Then the regular sound changes Labov discusses are examined, and Neogrammarian regularity and lexical diffusion in sound change are synthesized. The 2-dimensional lexical diffusion model, depending on the relative ratios of W(ord)-diffusion and S(peaker)-diffusion, synthesizes lexical diffusion and Neogrammarian regularity. It assumes that in Neogrammarian regularity W-diffusion proceeds so fast that it is difficult to observe it within each individual, but the change can be observed while it is in progress across generations. The empirical evidence of the rapid W-diffusion is also given.

 

本文书评《拉波夫与王士元对话: 语音变化的前沿问题》。作者首先查解了拉波夫与王士元的讲演。 然后对拉波夫关于规则语音变化的讨论作了查析,同时将语音变化里新语法学派的规则性及词汇扩散论作整和讨论。词-扩散及说话者-扩散相对比率的二维词汇扩散模式使词汇扩散与新语法学派的规则性得以整和。看起来,依新语法学派规则性的词-扩散快的难以根据每个说话者的情况观察到,但它却可以在跨世代进程中观察到。速率词-扩散的经验证据可供参考。

Report 报告

Abstract 摘要
The International Workshop on Language and Human Complexity took place on October 25-28, 2014 at Peking University, with language change as the theme. This four-day workshop covered eight important topics of language change, i.e. the emergence of syllabic languages, special changes in Tibeto-Burman languages, Literal/Colloquial competition, formation of the Huihui language, bilingual development, phonemic load, dynamic studies of Chinese, and the Sino-Tai hypothesis.

 

语言与人类复杂系统”国际研讨会于2014年10月25日至28日在北京大学召开。会议的主题是语言变化。四天的研讨会涵盖了语言变化研究中的八个重要议题,分别是:音节语言的涌现,藏缅语中的特殊变化,文白竞争,回辉话的形成,双语发展,音位负担,汉语的动态研究,汉台假说。

 

Abstract 摘要
The 6th International Conference in Evolutionary Linguistics (CIEL 6), jointly organized by Overseas Education College of Xiamen University and the Anthropological Society of China, was held in Xiang’an campus of Xiamen University, on November 22-23, 2014. A total of 45 scholars from China, U.S. and Estonia attended the conference. There were 7 keynote speeches, 22 oral presentations and 8 poster presentations featuring five major themes: language as a complex adaptive system; language and the brain; vertical and horizontal transmission of languages; language and population evolution in China; the ancestry of the Chinese Language.

 

由厦门大学海外教育学院和中国人类学学会联合主办的第六届演化语言学国际研讨会(CIEL-6)于2014年11月22-23日在厦门大学翔安校区召开。来自中国、美国和爱沙尼亚的45名专家学者参加了会议。会议共有7个主题报告、22个口头报告和8个海报展示,围绕以下5个议题展开:语言作为一个复杂适应系统、语言和大脑、语言的横向传递与纵向传递、中国语言的演化和中国人群的演化、汉语的祖先。

Special Issue 专辑

Abstract 摘要
he study of modern phonetics in China has come a long way over the last nine decades; this progress has included discovering the four tones of standard Chinese, introducing modern phonetic studies from the West, developing acoustical analysis, exploring physical aspects of phonetics, etc. Further advancing the field is The Physiological Aspects of Phonetics, new special issue of Journal Chinese Linguistics (ISSN 0091-3723) volume 43 number 1B (2015), edited by Prof. Jiangping Kong of Peking University, in which ten research papers in English on physiological aspects of phonetics in China are presented. in three parts: 1) The first four papers are on speech models, including three papers for geometrical models of Mandarin, and one paper for the physiological articulatory model; 2) The next three papers are on physiological phonetic studies that used electropalatography (EPG), instruments for air-pressure and flow, and aspiration; 3) The final three papers concern with phonation types of tones by using EGG signal and perception test. 1. Speech models “An Articulatory Model of Standard Chinese Using MRI and X-ray” has explored the articulatory mechanism of speech production in Standard Chinese and developed a geometrical articulatory model, both in visual and acoustic modalities, based on the data of MRI images and an X-ray movie. “A Two-Dimension Lip Model for Mandarin Chinese”, established a two dimensional lip model with inner and outer lip contours which has well defined the linguistic term ‘lip rounding’ and was used to generate audio-visual stimuli for the speech perception experiment of the McGurk Effect. “A Dynamic Glottal Model through High-speed Imaging” has introduced a dynamic glottal model based on high-speed imaging and the model controlled by dynamic glottal widths, lengths, F0, Open Quotient and Speed Quotient which can produce speech sources with different phonation types. “A Control Strategy of a Physiological Articulatory Model for Speech Production” has constructed a full three-dimensional physiological-articulatory model, including the tongue, jaw, hyoid bone and vocal tract wall, based on the continuum finite element method. 2. Physiological phonetic studies “Prosodic Boundaries Effect on Segment Articulation in Standard Chinese: An Articulatory and Acoustic Study” has investigated the EPG and acoustic data of the prosodic boundaries effect on the domain-initial segments in Standard Chinese, with the aim of examining the domain-initial strengthening in both spatial and temporal dimensions. “A Study on the Features of Chest and Abdominal Breathing when Reciting and Chanting Chinese Poetry” has studied the features of chest and abdominal breathing when reciting and chanting Chinese poems of different styles. “An Aerodynamic Study on Articulation of Mandarin Initials” has studied the aerodynamic features of Mandarin initial consonants with different articulatory places and manners and found that the parameters of expiratory airflow duration (EAD), peak air-pressure (PAP), peak expiratory airflow (PEA) and expiratory volume (EV) can all be regarded as the distinctive features in consonants. 3. Phonation types of tones by using EGG signal and perception test “Variations of Laryngeal Features in Jianchuan Bai” has examined the tonal quality based on three parameters of F0, OQ and SQ from EGG signals and found that there are two non-modal phonation types, namely Harsh and Pressed. “The Role of Phonation Cues in Mandarin Tonal Perception” has investigated the role of phonation cues in perceiving Mandarin tones in isolated syllables and found that it is necessary to define language tones in a finer model by incorporating detailed phonation parameters. “The Creaky Voice and its Tonal Description Method” has studied the different phonation types in Chinese Dilu dialect through F0, OQ and SQ from EGG signals and proposed a tone transcription system for languages that have various phonation types.

 

中國的現代語音學研究經歷了長達90年的歷程,這個過程包含了1)漢語四聲的發現、2)西方語音學的引入、3)聲學分析的發展、4)生理語音學研究領域拓展四個階段。 繼往開來, 《生理語音學研究》專輯,2015 年 英文期刊Journal of Chinese Linguistics (ISSN 0091-0037)43卷1B期刊載了十篇有關中國生理語音學研究的英文學術論文,約爲三部分。 1)其中有四篇爲言語模型的研究,包括三篇幾何模型,一篇生理模型;2) 三篇是利用電子腭位儀、氣流氣壓計和呼吸帶進行的生理語音學研究;3)三篇論文涉及到利用喉頭儀信號研究聲調的發聲類型和感知測試。 1.言語模型的研究 論文“用磁共振成像和X光聲道資料建立漢語普通話調音模型”利用MRI和X光數據研究了漢語産生的生理機制,幷建立了一個視覺和聲學的發音模型。論文“漢語普通話二維唇形模型”建立了一個包括內唇和外唇輪廓綫的二維模型,該模型可以很好地定義圓唇的概念,也可以合成音視樣本用于語言麥格克效應的感知實驗。論文“基于高速數位成像的動態聲門研究”介紹了基于高速成像的動態聲門模型,動態聲門模型可用聲門長、寬、基頻、開商和速度商等參數産生不同的語言發聲類型。論文“面向言語産生的發音生理模型控制方法”基于連續限定成分構建了一個三維生理發音模型,包括舌、下巴、下頜骨和聲道。 2.生理語音學研究 論文“韵律邊界對漢語普通話音段發音的影響:基于生理和聲學的研究”考察了漢語普通話域首聲母音段韵律邊界效應的聲學數據,對域首聲母邊界效應空間維和速度維的增强進行了考察。論文“古詩詞朗讀與吟誦的呼吸特徵研究”研究了漢語不同風格詩詞朗誦和吟誦之間胸腹呼吸的特徵。論文“漢語普通話聲母的空氣動力學研究”研究了不同發音部位和方法聲母的空氣動力學特徵,發現送氣時長、氣壓峰值、氣流峰值和氣流量可以作爲輔音的區別性特徵。 3. 聲調的發聲類型 論文“劍川白語的嗓音變异”利用基頻、開商和速度商測定了聲調的調質,發現有兩個非正常嗓音發聲類型,即“粗糙嗓音和緊嗓音”。論文“發聲信息在漢語四聲感知的作用” 考察孤立音節聲調感知的發聲綫索,發現發聲特徵在定義漢語普通話聲調時是必不可少特徵。論文“擠喉音的發聲模式和標調方法”利用基頻、開商和速度商研究了漢語路底方言不同的發聲類型,提出了一種描寫不同發聲類型的系統。

Volume 43, No 1B

Article 文章

Abstract 摘要
The study of modern phonetics in China has come a long way over the last nine decades; this progress has included discovering the four tones of standard Chinese, introducing modern phonetic studies from the West, developing acoustical analysis, exploring physical aspects of phonetics, etc. Further advancing the field is The Physiological Aspects of Phonetics, new special issue of Journal Chinese Linguistics (ISSN 0091-3723) volume 43 number 1B (2015), edited by Prof. Jiangping Kong of Peking University, in which ten research papers in English on physiological aspects of phonetics in China are presented. in three parts: 1) The first four papers are on speech models, including three papers for geometrical models of Mandarin, and one paper for the physiological articulatory model; 2) The next three papers are on physiological phonetic studies that used electropalatography (EPG), instruments for air-pressure and flow, and aspiration; 3) The final three papers concern with phonation types of tones by using EGG signal and perception test.

 

1. Speech models “An Articulatory Model of Standard Chinese Using MRI and X-ray” has explored the articulatory mechanism of speech production in Standard Chinese and developed a geometrical articulatory model, both in visual and acoustic modalities, based on the data of MRI images and an X-ray movie. “A Two-Dimension Lip Model for Mandarin Chinese”, established a two dimensional lip model with inner and outer lip contours which has well defined the linguistic term ‘lip rounding’ and was used to generate audio-visual stimuli for the speech perception experiment of the McGurk Effect. “A Dynamic Glottal Model through High-speed Imaging” has introduced a dynamic glottal model based on high-speed imaging and the model controlled by dynamic glottal widths, lengths, F0, Open Quotient and Speed Quotient which can produce speech sources with different phonation types. “A Control Strategy of a Physiological Articulatory Model for Speech Production” has constructed a full three-dimensional physiological-articulatory model, including the tongue, jaw, hyoid bone and vocal tract wall, based on the continuum finite element method.

 

2. Physiological phonetic studies “Prosodic Boundaries Effect on Segment Articulation in Standard Chinese: An Articulatory and Acoustic Study” has investigated the EPG and acoustic data of the prosodic boundaries effect on the domain-initial segments in Standard Chinese, with the aim of examining the domain-initial strengthening in both spatial and temporal dimensions. “A Study on the Features of Chest and Abdominal Breathing when Reciting and Chanting Chinese Poetry” has studied the features of chest and abdominal breathing when reciting and chanting Chinese poems of different styles. “An Aerodynamic Study on Articulation of Mandarin Initials” has studied the aerodynamic features of Mandarin initial consonants with different articulatory places and manners and found that the parameters of expiratory airflow duration (EAD), peak air-pressure (PAP), peak expiratory airflow (PEA) and expiratory volume (EV) can all be regarded as the distinctive features in consonants.

 

3. Phonation types of tones by using EGG signal and perception test “Variations of Laryngeal Features in Jianchuan Bai” has examined the tonal quality based on three parameters of F0, OQ and SQ from EGG signals and found that there are two non-modal phonation types, namely Harsh and Pressed. “The Role of Phonation Cues in Mandarin Tonal Perception” has investigated the role of phonation cues in perceiving Mandarin tones in isolated syllables and found that it is necessary to define language tones in a finer model by incorporating detailed phonation parameters. “The Creaky Voice and its Tonal Description Method” has studied the different phonation types in Chinese Dilu dialect through F0, OQ and SQ from EGG signals and proposed a tone transcription system for languages that have various phonation types.

 

中国的现代语音学研究经历了长达90年的历程,这个过程包含了1)汉语四声的发现、2)西方语音学的引入、3)声学分析的发展、4)生理语音学研究领域拓展四个阶段。 继往开来, 《生理语音学研究》专辑,2015 年 英文期刊Journal of Chinese Linguistics (ISSN 0091-0037)43卷1B期刊载了十篇有关中国生理语音学研究的英文学术论文,约为三部分。 1)其中有四篇为言语模型的研究,包括三篇几何模型,一篇生理模型;2) 三篇是利用电子腭位仪、气流气压计和呼吸带进行的生理语音学研究;3)三篇论文涉及到利用喉头仪信号研究声调的发声类型和感知测试。

 

1.言语模型的研究 论文“用磁共振成像和X光声道资料建立汉语普通话调音模型”利用MRI和X光数据研究了汉语产生的生理机制,幷建立了一个视觉和声学的发音模型。论文“汉语普通话二维唇形模型”建立了一个包括内唇和外唇轮廓线的二维模型,该模型可以很好地定义圆唇的概念,也可以合成音视样本用于语言麦格克效应的感知实验。论文“基于高速数位成像的动态声门研究”介绍了基于高速成像的动态声门模型,动态声门模型可用声门长、宽、基频、开商和速度商等参数产生不同的语言发声类型。论文“面向言语产生的发音生理模型控制方法”基于连续限定成分构建了一个三维生理发音模型,包括舌、下巴、下颌骨和声道。

 

2.生理语音学研究 论文“韵律边界对汉语普通话音段发音的影响:基于生理和声学的研究”考察了汉语普通话域首声母音段韵律边界效应的声学数据,对域首声母边界效应空间维和速度维的增强进行了考察。论文“古诗词朗读与吟诵的呼吸特征研究”研究了汉语不同风格诗词朗诵和吟诵之间胸腹呼吸的特征。论文“汉语普通话声母的空气动力学研究”研究了不同发音部位和方法声母的空气动力学特征,发现送气时长、气压峰值、气流峰值和气流量可以作为辅音的区别性特征。

 

3. 声调的发声类型 论文“剑川白语的嗓音变异”利用基频、开商和速度商测定了声调的调质,发现有两个非正常嗓音发声类型,即“粗糙嗓音和紧嗓音”。论文“发声信息在汉语四声感知的作用” 考察孤立音节声调感知的发声线索,发现发声特征在定义汉语普通话声调时是必不可少特征。论文“挤喉音的发声模式和标调方法”利用基频、开商和速度商研究了汉语路底方言不同的发声类型,提出了一种描写不同发声类型的系统。

Abstract 摘要
To better understand speech production from the phonological inputs to articulatory movements and then to acoustic outputs, it is important to establish an elaborate articulatory model of the vocal tract. This paper has explored the articulatory mechanism of speech production in Standard Chinese and developed a geometric articulatory model in both the visual and acoustic modalities.1 This model was based on the data of MRI images and X-ray movie, with the former providing detailed volumetric information of the vocal tract, and the latter the dynamic information of articulation. In this model, the seven articulators have been studied and modeled, including the hard palate, pharynx, jaw, lips, velum, tongue, and larynx. The tongue is modeled as two parts: tongue tip and tongue body, thus reducing the necessary number of parameters. The relation between larynx height and fundamental frequency in regard to the four tones is also modeled. These two improvements on tongue and larynx modeling have contributed new ideas to the articulatory modeling of Standard Chinese. This model can serve as a research tool for linguists, phoneticians, and speech engineers, and can be used in parameter speech synthesis, virtual speaker, and visual assistant speech training of Standard Chinese.

 

为了更好地理解言语的产生过程,即如何从音位输入到调音器官的动作、再到声学输出,需要建立详尽的声道调音模型。本文是对汉语普通话言语产生中调音机制的探索与研究,建立了一个具有视觉和声学输出的几何调音模型。该调音模型的数据源自于声道的磁共振图像和X光录影,前者主要提供声道的立体形状,后者提供调音的动态过程。在这个模型中,声道被分解为七个调音部位进行研究:硬腭、喉腔后壁、下颌、双唇、软腭、舌头和喉管。其中创新性地,舌头又被分为舌体(相对简单)和舌尖(更为灵活)两部份,从而简化所需要的参数;另外,普通话四声中基频高低与喉管上下高度的关系也加入到模型中。该模型可以作为研究工具服务于语言学、语音学和言语工程,并可用于语音参数合成、虚拟说话人、普通话辅助教学等领域。

 

Keywords 关键词

Speech production 言语产生 Articulatory model 调音模型 Vocal tract 声道 MRI 磁共振成像 X-ray Movie X光

Abstract 摘要
A two-dimensional lip model with inner lip information is provided in this paper.1 The lip model can precisely describe all possible lip states, which generally include complete closure, half opening, and full opening. By changing the values of the lip model’s parameters, all kinds of lip contours with different shapes can be generated, and the lip contours can fit the real lip shape quite well. The lip geometrical features based on lip contour are extracted and used to define a basic linguistic term, lip rounding. This paper has shown that the width of the inner lip is as important as the width of the outer lip when defining lip rounding. In the Audio-Visual (AV) speech perception experiment of the McGurk Effect, samples are developed with the aid of the lip model. The first sample is to keep all lip information including the tongue and the teeth information, the second sample is to keep both outer and inner lip information, and the last sample is to keep the outer lip information only. The result proves that the inner lip provides the most visual information of speech in the McGurk Effect experiment. It is concluded that the inner lip information is indispensable in the lip model for linguistic study based on the above research.

 

本文提出了一种具用内唇信息的二维唇模型。此模型可以精确的描述所有可能的唇形状态,包括全闭合状态,半开合状态和全张开状态。通过调整模型的参数,可以生成各种不同形状的唇形,并能完全拟合真实嘴唇轮廓。本文提取了基于嘴唇轮廓的唇形几何特征,并用之定义语言学的一个基本概念,圆唇。本文的研究结果表明在定义圆唇时,内唇宽度和外唇宽度的重要性相似。利用本文提出的唇模型所生成测试样本,将其用于McGurk效应的可视语音感知实验中。第一个样本保留了外唇轮廓信息,第二个样本同时保留了内外唇轮廓信息,最后一个样本除了保留内外唇轮廓信息之外还提供了舌头和牙齿的信息。实验结果证明在McGurk效应的实验中内唇轮廓提供了语言的大部份的视觉信息。可以由此得出在涉及语言的研究中,唇模型的内唇信息是必不可少的。

 

 

Keywords 关键词

Lip model 唇模型 Lip rounding 圆唇 Audio-Visual speech perception 可视语音感知 McGurk Effect McGurk 效应

Abstract 摘要
This paper is a study for an improved dynamic glottal model through high-speed imaging (HSI). As is well known, speech production comprises three parts, namely speech source, speech resonance and lip radiation. Among these three parts, speech source is the most important one because it is the basis of speech. In research on speech production, acoustical models of speech source have been well established. But the physiological speech source, that is to say, the activity of the glottis is seldom researched, because the vibration of the vocal folds is difficult to observe and sample. A study on the glottal model was established many years ago (Kong 2007), and in that model, the static glottis was modeled by four quarters of ellipses in three modes namely normal mode, leakage mode and open mode. The dynamic glottal control function was modeled by an approximation of multiplication of sine and exponential. The problem of the dynamic glottal model is that the control parameters can’t be well explained, though the glottis can be simulated. In this study, more high-speed images were sampled, the image processing was greatly improved and the dynamic glottal control function was modeled with parameters which were significant to speech perception.

 

本文利用高速数位成像技术对动态声门模型进行了研究。众所周知,言语产生包括嗓音声源、声道共鸣和唇辐射三个方面,其中嗓音声源尤其重要,因为嗓音声源是言语产生的基础。在言语产生的研究中,声学模型已经有了很深入的研究,但由于声带振动难于观察和采集样本,嗓音的生理模型研究的很少。多年前作者建立了一个动态声门模型(Kong 2007),在此模型中,静态声门是用四个四分之一椭圆来建模的,并有正常、漏气和敞开四种模式。模型的动态声门控制函数是通过正弦和抛物线的乘积来建模。虽然这种方式有效,但合成嗓音的参数解释性较差。在本项研究中,采集了更多更高品质的声带振动高速数位成象样本和大大改进了数位影像处理的技术,最终模型的动态声门控制函数所用的参数对嗓音声源的感知具有很好的解释性。

 

Keywords 关键词

SHigh-speed imaging 高速数位成像 Vibration of vocal folds 声带振动 Dynamic glottal model 动态声门模型

Abstract 摘要
In speech production the articulatory apparatus includes the organs that execute efferent motor commands from the central nervous system. In order to simulate the behavior of the articulatory apparatus, computational modeling is a commonly-used method. We have constructed a full 3D physiological articulatory model that includes the tongue, jaw, hyoid bone and vocal-tract wall based on the continuum finite element method. This model comprises articulatory muscles with realistic properties and geometrical arrangements. The muscle activation patterns are used to control the movements of the model. In order to use the model to investigate the speech motor control mechanism, generate speech sounds, predict the effect of surgical operation, etc., we have to realize an automatic control strategy. The task of the control strategy is given a particular target, how to generate muscle activation patterns that can control the model to achieve the target. There are two main control strategies for the physiological articulatory model: feedforward control and feedback control. Feedforward control is a kind of mapping used to directly find muscle activation patterns according to the desired target, and feedback control is used to adjust muscle activation patterns to reduce the distance between the desired target and the realized position. In speech production, feedforward mapping is used to rapidly generate muscle activation patterns to control the articulators to produce fluent speech. Feedback control plays the role of learning and maintaining the feedforward mapping. When the degree of accuracy using feedforward mapping cannot satisfy the requirement, feedback control can be used to realize fine motor control. In this paper, we describe how to use feedback control as a learning loop to construct feedforward mapping. The constructed feedforward mapping was assessed through an open-set test, and reasonable articulatory positions were obtained by comparison with the desired targets. Furthermore, the ability of feedback control to improve control accuracy was proved by a large quantity of simulations. SUBJECT KEYWORDS: Speech production Physiological Articulatory Model Muscle activation pattern Speech motor control

 

在言语产生的过程中,发音器官是执行来自中枢神经系统的运动指令的终端组织。电脑建模的方法常常被应用于模拟发音器官的行为。为此,我们使用连续体有限元的方法建立了一个三维的发音器官的生理模型,该模型包含舌、下颌、舌骨以及声道壁等发音器官。该模型还包括了根据其生理解剖属性建立的用于控制发音器官运动的肌肉模型。为了将该生理模型应用于探索发音器官的运动控制机制,产生自然流畅的语音,对发音器官的手术后功能进行预测等,我们需要对模型建立一个自动的控制机制。控制机制的任务在于给定一个发音目标,如何自动的产生肌肉激活模式去控制模型到达目标。对于发音器官的生理模型而言,有两种主要的控制方式:前馈控制和回馈控制。前馈控制是一种从发音控制目标到肌肉激活模式的映射,用于根据发音目标产生肌肉激活模式;而回馈控制主要用于调整肌肉激活模式来减少模型实现的位置到目标之间的距离,最终控制模型到达目标。在言语产生的过程中,前馈控制用于快速的产生肌肉激活模式控制发音器官产生流畅的语音。回馈控制主要用于学习前馈控制的映射,并且维持前馈控制可行性。当前馈控制的精度不能满足需求时,回馈控制可以用于提高控制精度以实现精确控制。在本文中,我们将重点介绍如何使用回馈控制作为学习回路,建立前馈控制的映射。对已建立的前馈映射的开集测试表明该映射可以用于控制模型在误差允许范围内达到目标。而且,大量的模型模拟表明回馈控制可用于改善前馈控制的控制精度。

 

Keywords 关键词

Speech production 言语产生 Physiological Articulatory Model 发音生理模型 Muscle activation pattern 肌肉激活模式 Speech motor control 发音器官运动控制

Abstract 摘要
This paper presents an electropalatographic (EPG) and acoustic study of prosodic boundaries effect on the domain-initial segments in Standard Chinese.1 Two speech sounds, namely, the voiceless unaspirated alveolar stop /t/ and the high front vowel /i/, were studied to examine the domain-initial strengthening in both spatial and temporal dimensions. The articulatory and acoustic parameters of the speech sounds were compared in initial positions of five prosodic constituents in Standard Chinese, namely, a Syllable, a Foot, an Immediate Phrase, an Intonational Phrase, and an Utterance. The results show that: (1) the production of the domain-initial consonantal gesture was prosodically encoded. The linguopalatal contact and the seal duration varied as a function of the prosodic boundary strength. The linguopalatal contact was dependent on the seal duration in a nonlinear fashion. Of the acoustic properties of the domain-initial stop, the total voiceless interval and voicing during closure were found to be reliable acoustic correlates that mark the hierarchical structure of the prosody. (2) At the release moment of the domain-initial stop, no consistent pattern was found to support the domain-initial strengthening. The linguopalatal contact of the vowel immediately following the domain-initial consonant did not show a clear trend of domain-initial strengthening; however, the phonatory features of vowels were indicative of pitch reset at major prosodic boundaries. These indicate that the domain-initial strengthening is restricted on the segment immediately following the boundary. In conclusion Standard Chinese strengthens the phonetic features of the domain-initial segments as a function of boundary strength, which serves as an important way to mark prosodic structure in Standard Chinese.

本文使用动态电子腭位元(EPG)和声学分析的方法,考察汉语普通话韵律边界对韵律单元域首音段的发音生理和声学特征的影响。我们选取普通话的清不送气齿龈塞音/t/和前高母音/i/,从音段产生的空间域和时间域分析域首发音增强现象。普通话的韵律层级包括音节、音步、小韵律短语、大韵律短语和话语。通过比较不同韵律层次域首音段的发音生理和声学参数,我们发现:(1)单元域首辅音的发音动作受到普通话韵律结构的制约。辅音的舌腭接触和生理持阻时长与韵律边界的强度密切相关;辅音的舌腭接触与生理持阻时长之间呈现出非线性关系;辅音声学时段的清声段时长和浊声时长比能够有效地标记韵律边界的强度。(2)辅音除阻时刻的舌腭接触以及辅音后接母音的最大舌腭接触受边界强度的影响较小,且后接母音的嗓音特征与较大韵律边界的基频重设有关。这说明域首发音增强的作用域限于韵律边界后面的音段。研究结果表明,普通话韵律单元域首音段的发音特征得到增强,且增强程度与边界强度密切相关,这是标示普通话韵律结构的一个重要方式。

 

Keywords 关键词

Prosodic boundaries 韵律边界 Segment articulation 音段发音 Electropalatography 动态电子腭位元 Standard Chinese 汉语普通话

Abstract 摘要
This research studies the features of chest and abdominal breathing between reciting and chanting Chinese poems of different styles.1 Eight participants were recruited to recite and chant 85 modern style poems (近體詩) and 39 Song poems (宋詞). The chest and abdominal breathing signals as well as speech signal were recorded simultaneously. Programs for breathing analysis have been written to extract parameters, such as breathing reset amplitude, time of inhalation phase, and slope of exhalation phase. The results show that the poem chanting has a larger depth of breathing and amount of breath, and more frequent exhalations compared with the poem reciting. In both poem reciting and chanting, the pause and declination of chest breathing is closely correlated with the prosodic boundaries. The major function of chest breathing in speaking is to keep the chest extended and provide enough breath for articulation and chest resonance. The function of abdominal breathing is to provide stable sub-glottal pressure through contraction of abdominal muscle and diaphragm, controlling continuous airflow to produce continuous sound.

 

为探讨胸腹呼吸在不同文体与不同诵读方式中的特征,以及胸腹呼吸的作用和二者的关系,本文同步录制了8位吟诵人的85首近体诗和39篇词的语音、胸呼吸和腹呼吸三路信号。使用自主编写的呼吸分析程式,提取了呼吸重置幅度、吸气相时间、呼气相斜率等参数。实验结果表明,古诗词吟诵比朗读中呼吸重置幅度大,即呼吸深度大,气息量增大,呼气时间长,气息更为平缓。言语状态下腹呼吸重置时间早于胸呼吸和语音起始时间,胸呼吸间断或下倾与韵律边界相关。言语状态下胸呼吸主要作用是在发音时胸腔保持扩张状态至发音结束,为发音提供足够的气息,同时提供胸腔共鸣;腹呼吸主要作用是,通过腹肌和膈肌的稳健收缩,以保证稳定的声门下压,控制气流持续释放,以获得连续的语音。

 

Keywords 关键词

Chest and abdominal breathing 胸腹呼吸 Poem reciting 朗读 Poem chanting 吟诵 Speech production 言语产生

Abstract 摘要
This paper presents findings on the aerodynamic features of Mandarin initial consonants on different articulatory places and manners.1 Signals of speech, airflow, and air-pressure from 20 speakers (10 males and 10 females) were collected by using Phonatory Aerodynamic System (PAS6600). Parameters, including duration, sound pressure, air-pressure peak, airflow peak, airflow volume were measured. The results showed that: 1) The aerodynamic features of initials vary among different speakers, which might be attributed to their gender or articulation habits. Male speakers have higher air-pressure, airflow peak and expiratory volume (EV) than females, which might be attributed to a greater lung capacity of the male. 2) Aspirated consonants have higher sound pressure level (SPL), expiratory airflow duration (EAD), peak air-pressure (PAP), peak expiratory airflow (PEA) and EV than their unaspirated counterparts. Therefore all these parameters can be regarded as criteria for distinguishing aspirated and unaspirated consonants. 3) The vibration of vocal cords in voiced consonants has an immediate impact on SPL, which leads to higher SPL values than those in voiceless consonants, but air-pressure is just the opposite. The PEA and EV of voiced consonants are close to those of voiceless stops, but these two parameters are far smaller than those for other consonants. 4) The aerodynamics of consonants with different articulatory manners are significantly different, thus the EAD, PAP, PEA and EV parameters can all be regarded as the distinctive features of consonants.

 

本文以汉语普通话辅音声母为研究物件,使用气流气压计(PAS6600)采集20名发音人(10名男性和10名女性)的语音、气流和气压信号,提取辅音的时长、声压、气压峰值、气流峰值、气流量等参数,来研究不同发音方法和发音部位的辅音空气动力特性。研究结果发现:1)不同的发音人,由于性别和发音习惯不同,辅音的空气动力学特性差异比较大。男性的辅音气压峰值、气流峰值和气流量参数均大于女性,这与男性的肺活量大于女性有直接的关系,声压级略大于女性、但时长略小于女性。2)送气音的声压级、时长、气压峰值、气流峰值和气流量均大于对应的不送气音。这些参数可以作为划分辅音送气与不送气的依据;3)声带的振动直接影响了辅音的声压值大小,浊辅音的声压略大于清辅音,气压远小于清辅音,气流速率和气流量与清辅音的塞音比较接近,远小于其他辅音。4)辅音的发音方法决定着气流的方式,所以不同的发音方法在气流气压信号上区别性很显著,时长、气压峰值、气流峰值和气流量参数可作为辅音发音方法的区别性特征。

 

Keywords 关键词

Consonant 辅音 Aerodynamic Features 空气动力 Airflow rate 气流速率 Air-pressure 气压 Airflow volume 气流量 PAS6600

Abstract 摘要
The tonal system in Jianchuan Bai has attracted much attention for its complex combinations of pitch and phonation type. In this paper,1 based on EGG signals, three parameters, namely F0, Open Quotient (OQ) and Speed Quotient (SQ), are extracted to examine the tonal quality. It is found that there are two non-modal phonation types, Harsh and Pressed, and roughly four groups of pitch pattern (31/31/41; 33/433; 55/54; 35) in the eight tonal categories. One pair of tones can only be distinguished from each other by phonation type since their pitches are the same. As for other pairs, both pitch and phonation type may contribute to the distinction between them. Notably, non-modal phonation types vary across different Bai speakers. For a particular non-modal tone, one speaker may employ harsh voice, while another may use pressed voice. Sometimes, the non-modal phonation type even changed within a syllable. It is then suggested that different strategies may be used to produce non-modal tones in contrast with their modal counterpart. Moreover, based on the Bai data, how to define different phonation types based on the three basic parameters, F0, OQ and SQ, is discussed. Harsh voice is a better term for the type with the laryngeal features [Middle falling F0, -OQ, -SQ] rather than high-pitched voice.

 

剑川白语的声调系统中音高与发声类型的配合关系复杂,很引人注目。本文基于电声门信号,提取基频、开商和速度商三个参数来探讨声调的性质。在八个调类中,有两种特殊发声类型-刺耳音和紧喉音。按音高可以大致分为4组,即31/31/41; 33/433; 55/54;35。其中有一对音高完全相同,只能根据发声类型的不同来区分调类。至于其他对,音高和发声类型都可能对区分有贡献。值得注意的是,特殊发声类型在不同发音人中有变异。某种特殊发声类型,一个白语发音人可能用刺耳音,而另一个可能发紧喉音。有时,特殊发声类型可能在一个音节内发生转换。这说明不同的发音人可能运用不同的发声策略来与相对的普通发声调类构成区别。论文根据白语进一步探讨了如何根据基频、开商和速度商这三个基本参数来定义发声类型的种类。对于白语中具有中降调、低开商和低速度商的特殊发声类型而言,刺耳音或许是比高音调嗓音更合适的术语。

 

Keywords 关键词

Jianchuan Bai 剑川白语 EGG 电声门信号 Phonation type 发声类型 Tone 声调

Abstract 摘要
This study investigates the role of phonation cues in perceiving Mandarin tones in isolated syllables.1 Mandarin tones have been previously reported to be sufficiently identified by F0 contour, while phonation cues are redundant. This study provides evidence to show that native Mandarin speakers are sensitive to phonation cues in identifying the four mandarin tones in isolated syllables. Moreover, Mandarin Tone 3 more strongly relies on phonation cues in its identification than the other three tones, which probably derives from the usual accompanying non-modal voice (creaky voice) in Tone 3 production. These results thus indicate the need to define language tones in a finer model that incorporates detailed phonation parameters.

 

本文调查了发声信息在汉语单音节四声感知中的作用。以往研究中认为基频(F0)足以感知汉语四声,而发声信息是冗余信息,不影响汉语四声的感知。本文的研究提供证据表明汉语母语者在四声感知中利用了声调的发声信息。尤其对于在发音中常常伴有紧喉嗓音(Creaky voice)的汉语上声音节,发声信息被用于识别汉语上声的效果更为显著。本文的研究也说明有必要建立包含详细发声参数的声调模型。

 

Keywords 关键词

Tone perception 声调感知 Tone identification 声调识别 Mandarin Chinese 汉语 Phonation 发声 F0 contour 基频

Abstract 摘要
The Dilu dialect (spoken in Mengshan, Guangxi) shows, disparity in the categorization of phonation types in phonetic and phonological analyses. While the phonological analysis proposes that Dilu operates with two phonation types, i.e. creaky and modal, phonetic facts show a three-way distinction, i.e. creaky, male modal and female modal. In this paper acoustic features are investigated for modal and creaky voices in Dilu.1 In particular, the parameters of Open Quotient (OQ) and Speed Quotient (SQ) are examined. We discuss whether it is necessary and possible for female and male modal voices to collapse into one category to serve the purpose of phonological transcription. Finally, based on an independent five-level tone scale, we propose a tone transcription system for languages that have various phonation types.

 

从语音学角度看,蒙山底路话中存在三个嗓音类型:挤喉嗓音,男性正常嗓音和女性正常嗓音,从音位学角度来看,只存在挤喉嗓音和正常嗓音的对立。根据蒙山底路话声调系统的这一特性,在本文中我们分析了蒙山底路话声调系统中挤喉嗓音的声学特征,根据开商和速度商参数,讨论了蒙山底路话挤喉嗓音的发声模式;还讨论了在音位处理过程中,男女正常嗓音转换的可能性和必要性;提出了在多声域语言中根据不同发声类型用不同的五度标尺的标调框架。

 

Keywords 关键词

Mengshan Dilu dialect 蒙山底路话 Phonation type 发声类型 Creaky voice 挤喉嗓音 Open Quotient 开商 Speed Quotient 速度商

Abstract 摘要
The study of modern phonetics in China has come a long way over the last nine decades; this progress has included discovering the four tones of standard Chinese, introducing modern phonetic studies from the West, developing acoustical analysis, exploring physical aspects of phonetics, etc. Further advancing the field is The Physiological Aspects of Phonetics, new special issue of Journal Chinese Linguistics (ISSN 0091-3723) volume 43 number 1B (2015), edited by Prof. Jiangping Kong of Peking University, in which ten research papers in English on physiological aspects of phonetics in China are presented. in three parts: 1) The first four papers are on speech models, including three papers for geometrical models of Mandarin, and one paper for the physiological articulatory model; 2) The next three papers are on physiological phonetic studies that used electropalatography (EPG), instruments for air-pressure and flow, and aspiration; 3) The final three papers concern with phonation types of tones by using EGG signal and perception test. 1. Speech models “An Articulatory Model of Standard Chinese Using MRI and X-ray” has explored the articulatory mechanism of speech production in Standard Chinese and developed a geometrical articulatory model, both in visual and acoustic modalities, based on the data of MRI images and an X-ray movie. “A Two-Dimension Lip Model for Mandarin Chinese”, established a two dimensional lip model with inner and outer lip contours which has well defined the linguistic term ‘lip rounding’ and was used to generate audio-visual stimuli for the speech perception experiment of the McGurk Effect. “A Dynamic Glottal Model through High-speed Imaging” has introduced a dynamic glottal model based on high-speed imaging and the model controlled by dynamic glottal widths, lengths, F0, Open Quotient and Speed Quotient which can produce speech sources with different phonation types. “A Control Strategy of a Physiological Articulatory Model for Speech Production” has constructed a full three-dimensional physiological-articulatory model, including the tongue, jaw, hyoid bone and vocal tract wall, based on the continuum finite element method. 2. Physiological phonetic studies “Prosodic Boundaries Effect on Segment Articulation in Standard Chinese: An Articulatory and Acoustic Study” has investigated the EPG and acoustic data of the prosodic boundaries effect on the domain-initial segments in Standard Chinese, with the aim of examining the domain-initial strengthening in both spatial and temporal dimensions. “A Study on the Features of Chest and Abdominal Breathing when Reciting and Chanting Chinese Poetry” has studied the features of chest and abdominal breathing when reciting and chanting Chinese poems of different styles. “An Aerodynamic Study on Articulation of Mandarin Initials” has studied the aerodynamic features of Mandarin initial consonants with different articulatory places and manners and found that the parameters of expiratory airflow duration (EAD), peak air-pressure (PAP), peak expiratory airflow (PEA) and expiratory volume (EV) can all be regarded as the distinctive features in consonants. 3. Phonation types of tones by using EGG signal and perception test “Variations of Laryngeal Features in Jianchuan Bai” has examined the tonal quality based on three parameters of F0, OQ and SQ from EGG signals and found that there are two non-modal phonation types, namely Harsh and Pressed. “The Role of Phonation Cues in Mandarin Tonal Perception” has investigated the role of phonation cues in perceiving Mandarin tones in isolated syllables and found that it is necessary to define language tones in a finer model by incorporating detailed phonation parameters. “The Creaky Voice and its Tonal Description Method” has studied the different phonation types in Chinese Dilu dialect through F0, OQ and SQ from EGG signals and proposed a tone transcription system for languages that have various phonation types.

 

中国的现代语音学研究经历了长达90年的历程,这个过程包含了1)汉语四声的发现、2)西方语音学的引入、3)声学分析的发展、4)生理语音学研究领域拓展四个阶段。 继往开来, 《生理语音学研究》专辑,2015 年 英文期刊Journal of Chinese Linguistics (ISSN 0091-0037)43卷1B期刊载了十篇有关中国生理语音学研究的英文学术论文,约为三部分。 1)其中有四篇为言语模型的研究,包括三篇几何模型,一篇生理模型;2) 三篇是利用电子腭位仪、气流气压计和呼吸带进行的生理语音学研究;3)三篇论文涉及到利用喉头仪信号研究声调的发声类型和感知测试。 1.言语模型的研究 论文“用磁共振成像和X光声道资料建立汉语普通话调音模型”利用MRI和X光数据研究了汉语产生的生理机制,幷建立了一个视觉和声学的发音模型。论文“汉语普通话二维唇形模型”建立了一个包括内唇和外唇轮廓线的二维模型,该模型可以很好地定义圆唇的概念,也可以合成音视样本用于语言麦格克效应的感知实验。论文“基于高速数位成像的动态声门研究”介绍了基于高速成像的动态声门模型,动态声门模型可用声门长、宽、基频、开商和速度商等参数产生不同的语言发声类型。论文“面向言语产生的发音生理模型控制方法”基于连续限定成分构建了一个三维生理发音模型,包括舌、下巴、下颌骨和声道。 2.生理语音学研究 论文“韵律边界对汉语普通话音段发音的影响:基于生理和声学的研究”考察了汉语普通话域首声母音段韵律边界效应的声学数据,对域首声母边界效应空间维和速度维的增强进行了考察。论文“古诗词朗读与吟诵的呼吸特征研究”研究了汉语不同风格诗词朗诵和吟诵之间胸腹呼吸的特征。论文“汉语普通话声母的空气动力学研究”研究了不同发音部位和方法声母的空气动力学特征,发现送气时长、气压峰值、气流峰值和气流量可以作为辅音的区别性特征。 3. 声调的发声类型 论文“剑川白语的嗓音变异”利用基频、开商和速度商测定了声调的调质,发现有两个非正常嗓音发声类型,即“粗糙嗓音和紧嗓音”。论文“发声信息在汉语四声感知的作用” 考察孤立音节声调感知的发声线索,发现发声特征在定义汉语普通话声调时是必不可少特征。论文“挤喉音的发声模式和标调方法”利用基频、开商和速度商研究了汉语路底方言不同的发声类型,提出了一种描写不同发声类型的系统。

Volume 43, No 2

Article 文章

Abstract 摘要
The present paper investigates Mandarin verbs of MOTION, one of the fundamental domains of human activities and extensively discussed areas in linguistic research. Previous studies on Mandarin motion verbs are done primarily with a typological concern. However, given the iconic nature of serial motions in Mandarin, this paper attempts to provide a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the semantic-to-morphological and lexical-to-grammatical distinctions pertaining to the colloconstructional sequencing of motion verbs. Based on the Proto-Motion Event Schema (PMS), it offers an overarching framework for a top-down analysis of the conceptual structure of motion and a bottom-up examination of corpus-based collocations. Representing the iconic sequence of serial motion events, the Schema helps to identify the crucial semantic components, both verb-internally and verb-externally, for a systematic investigation and classification of motion progression. It attempts to establish a link for lexical semantic studies of motion from various perspectives. By probing into the conceptual basis of proto-motion event, the study ultimately offers an iconically-motivated account of the possible ranges of verb meaning and the semantic-to-morphosyntactic sequencing of Mandarin motion verbs.

 

移动事件为人类活动最基础的概念范畴之一,移动动词也是语言学研究中最广为讨论的一项课题。关于汉语移动动词,前人主要研究其语意与类型学特征。然而,基于汉语句式允许数个动词排列的特性,需要对汉语移动动词进行更细致的研究。本文提出一个典型移动事件的认知架构,用以分析、解释并对移动动词内部隐含之语意进行分类。此架构提供从上而下探究移动动词之认知基础,也适于从下至上检视语料库显示之词汇搭配关系是否与之配合。本研究藉由语法与语意检测条件分析移动动词序列限制,着重词汇语意构词序列关系与认知架构间的象似性关联。最后,本研究整合动词内部隐含的语意成分与动词外部搭配出现的核心参与者角色,将汉语动词做一系统性的分类。

 

Keywords 关键词

Mandarin motion 汉语移动动词 Lexical semantics 词汇语意 Morphological sequencing 序列限制 Iconicity 象似性

Abstract 摘要
In contact linguistics, an overlooked area that has immense research potential is regular semantic change exhibited by loanwords. Due to the relatively shorter histories of contact languages as compared to ‘normal’ languages, semantic changes in contact languages are far better understood, thereby presenting us with case studies of polysemous words where contact-induced change and regular semantic change can be better demarcated. Studying such phenomena will thus shed light on the cognitive processes behind semantic change. This paper looks at how language use shapes the semantic pathway of Singapore Southern Min loanword balu and suggests that the findings in this paper can be applied cross-linguistically to other cases of regular semantic change. Singapore Colloquial Malay adverb baru ‘recently’ was borrowed into Singapore Southern Min as balu ‘recently’. Although Southern Min balu and Malay baru both share a common function, they exhibit disparate semantic pathways. Data gathered shows that loanword balu ‘recently’ has no tendency to develop a conjunctive function similar to that of Singapore Colloquial Malay and baru ‘recently’ has no tendency to develop another adverbial function like that of balu ‘recently’ in Singapore Southern Min. Initial findings of this paper suggest that the contrasting semantic pathways for Southern Min balu ‘recently’ and Malay baru ‘recently’ are due to differences in semantic fields a particular word is most strongly associated. Nevertheless, the overarching mechanism behind both semantic changes is still pragmatic inferencing, or in other words, a reanalysis of contextually ambiguous sentences.

 

借词的语义演变在语言接触研究中是乏人问津的重要课题之一。相比之下,接触语言中的变化比一般“正常”语言的变化发生得晚,我们对变化的来源和动因也更加清楚。因此,我们可以更肯定地区分多义词新语义的产生是否由接触所致(外在因素)或者是因语言自身的使用所致(内在因素)。本文相信,对完全融入受语的借词而言,借词语义演变的规律与“正常”语言无异。通过对借词语义演变的研究,我们能进一步认识语义变化的认知基础。本文将介绍新加坡闽南话的语言使用如何影响马来借词balu的语义演变路径,并试图找出其中的规律。新加坡闽南话借入马来话副词balu“刚刚”以后,两种语言的不同使用方式赋予词汇不同的生命。虽然两者同样表示“刚刚”,语义发展路径却迥然不同。经本文调查,借词balu“刚刚”并没有发展出和马来话baru“刚刚”相同的连词功能;马来话baru“刚刚”也没有发展出和新加坡闽南话balu“刚刚”一样的另一个副词义。本文的初步假设是:新加坡闽南话balu“刚刚”和马来话baru“刚刚”的不同语义路径是个别词汇最相关的语义场有所不同所致。虽然如此,两种语义演变的机制仍然是语用推理。换言之,在这两中语言中,新语义的产生都是重新分析的结果。

 

Keywords 关键词

Language contact 语言接触 Lexical borrowing 借词 Language use 语言使用 Semantic change 语义演变 Semantic field 语义场

Abstract 摘要
It is not the result of syntactic or morphologic operation for the forming of verb-included compounds, like Zhizhan Fensui Ji(纸张粉碎机), but the outcome of prosodic factor because it is acceptable for compounds like SuiZhiJi(碎纸机) or Zhizhang Fensui Ji(纸张粉碎机), but unacceptable for Fensui Zhizhang Ji(*粉碎纸张机) or ZhiSuiJi(纸碎机).Even though scholars have published many articles on the issue about the prosodic factors in the forming of compounds, drawbacks of these researches gradually emerge. This paper not only analyzes the drawbacks but also put forward the view that Chinese verb-included compound is influenced by two prosodic restrictions, including Verbal-Foot Adjacency and Natural Foot Limitation, which can effectively explain how prosody shapes the production of verb-included compounds.

 

“纸张粉碎机”等汉语含动复合词的生成不只是句法操作或词法操作的结果,“碎纸机”合法,但“*粉碎纸张机”不合法;“纸张粉碎机”合法,但“*纸碎机”不合法,这说明韵律因素在这类词的生成过程中起着重要作用。近年来,关于韵律因素如何影响含动复合词生成的研究已经取得了很多成果,但随着研究的深入及对语料的更深入挖掘,前人研究中存在的一些不足逐渐显现。这篇文章首先详细分析了前人研究的不足,然后提出了影响汉语含动复合词生成的两个韵律限制:动词音步相邻、自然音步限制。1基于这两个限制,可以有效地解释韵律对含动复合词生成的影响。

 

Keywords 关键词

Verb-included compounds 含动复合词 Foot adjacency 音步相邻 Natural foot limitation 自然音步限制

Abstract 摘要
Based on firsthand acoustic data, this paper aims to determine how many phonologically contrastive falling tones exist in tonal languages, and what kinds of distinctive features are needed to specify them.1 These goals are achieved by using a tonal model called the Multi-Register and Four-Level Model, which represents tones along four parameters: register, length, height, and contour. Having excluded a quasi-falling tone, this paper identifies seven Falling Tonotypes in the M Register: High, Low, MS-High, MS-Low, Deferred-High, Deferred-Low, and Slight Falling. Four of these also occur in the L Register with special voice qualities. In total, there are eleven Falling Tonotypes, which can be specified according to five distinctive features.

 

本文旨在确定声调语言中到底有多少种有音法对立的降调,刻画这些降调又需要什么样的区别特征。要做到这些,一是需要大量的第一手声学材料,二是需要一个‘分域四度’标调制,在这个模型中,声调用四个参数或维度来表达:域度、长度、高度、拱度。在排除了一种貌似降调之后,本文辨认出中域里的七种降型:高降、低降、中短高降、中短低降、高弯降、低弯降、微降。其中有四种还出现于低域,带有特殊发声态。降调总共有十一种,可以用五个区别特征来刻画:[±中域,长,直,高前,高后]。

 

Keywords 关键词

Tonotype 调型 Tone 声调 Typology 类型学 Falling types 降调 Tonal representation 声调表达 Tonal parameters 声调参数 Register 声域 Distinctive feature 区别特征

Abstract 摘要
In this paper the present-day pronunciations of the historically voiced obstruents in Xiangxiang Chinese were examined from an acoustic-phonetic perspective. Results strongly supported an ongoing process of devoicing for the voiced stops, fricatives and affricates, which is conditioned by a couple of factors including sex of speaker, place of articulation, manner of articulation and historically tonal type. Specifically, historically voiced obstruents in syllables corresponding to the historical tone category Ru have all become voiceless unaspirated or voiceless aspirated, meaning the process of devoicing has already completed; in contrast, for those that occur in syllables corresponding to the other three tonal categories, i.e., Ping, Shang, and Qu, i) the historical devoicing is still in progress, as evidenced by a considerable amount of intra- and inter-speaker free variation in the pattern of voicing among “fully voiced”, “partially devoiced” and “fully devoiced” obstruents; ii) the degree of devoicing is the highest in voiced fricatives, followed by the voiced affricates, and is the lowest in voiced stops; and iii) the devoicing also tends to be more extensive for obstruents with a more posterior place of articulation, and for male than female speakers. Candidate explanations for these patterns of devoicing were also presented.

 

本文通过对大量语料的声学语音学分析,系统全面地探讨老湘语代表点湘乡方言中,三类古全浊阻塞音声母的清化现象。研究结果表明,湘乡方言的古全浊声母确实处在清化的进程当中,且清化程度各异:三类浊音中,浊擦音的清化程度最高,其次是浊塞擦音,而浊塞音的清化程度最低。浊阻塞音也因为发音人性别和辅音发音部位的不同而呈现不同的清化程度,其具体趋势为:男性发音人浊阻塞音的清化程度比女性发音人高;发音部位更后的浊阻塞音其清化程度更高。与中古语音系统的比较显示,古全浊声母在湘乡方言内部的演化不平衡,主要体现在调类上:古全浊声母入声字已经全部清化;舒声字中的古全浊声母有清、浊和半浊三个自由变体,且这三个变体既即出现在同一发音人内部,也出现在不同发音人之间,说明古全浊声母舒声字的语音特征不稳定,正处在清化的进程当中。本文也试图解释发音人性别、发音部位、发音方法、调类对浊音清化的影响。

 

Keywords 关键词

Devoicing 浊音清化 Historically voiced obstruents-stops-fricatives-affricates 古全浊阻塞音-塞音-擦音-塞擦音 Xiangxiang Chinese 湘乡方言 Acoustics 声学语音学

Abstract 摘要
The periods during which the particle “le(了2)” fully developed and matured in the Northern and Southern Mandarins are different: the former in the Ming Dynasty while the latter in the Southern Song Dynasty. Also, the evolution paths of “le(了2)” in the Northern and Southern Mandarins are different: the southern “le(了2)” is derived from the phase complement “le” in the structure “verb (+ object) + le” and the northern “le(了2)”is grammaticalized from the aspect particle “le(了1)”.

 

事态助词“了2”在南北官话里发育成熟的时间不同:北方在明代,南方在南宋。南北官话的“了2”各有不同的演变路径,南方的“了2”来源于“动(+宾)+了”中的动相补语“了”;北方的“了2”由动态助词“了1”语法化而来。

 

Keywords 关键词

Situation particle le(了2)事态助词 “了2”; ye 也

Discussion 论述

Abstract 摘要
Recent cross-language research has yielded strong statistical evidence in support of the idea, advocated by André Martinet and widely accepted by linguists, that languages avoid adopting sound-changes which would create many homophones. Yet we know that the history of Chinese phonology has been marked by repeated phoneme mergers and losses which led to a very high incidence of homophony, forcing the monomorphemic vocabulary of the classical language to be replaced by a largely bimorphemic modern vocabulary. This paper examines various ways in which this apparent contradiction might be resolved. None seems fully satisfactory, yet some resolution must exist.

 

安德烈・马蒂内(André Martinet)提出对于会产生很多同音异义词的变音形式,语言会避免引入;该观点已广为语言学家们所接受。近期的跨语言研究已提供有力的统计数据来支持这一观点。然而,我们知道汉语音韵学的发展历史特点是音素的不断合并和丢失,导致同音现象的几率很高, 使得古代语言的单音素词汇被以双音素为主的现代词汇所代替。本文考察了各种不同的方法来尝试解决这个突出的矛盾。 似乎没有一种方法完全令人满意, 然而某种解决方法肯定存在。

 

Keywords 关键词

Homophones 同音字词 Homophony avoidance 同音异义回避 Functional yield 功能效益 Functional load 功能负荷量 Martinet 安德烈

Abstract 摘要
Geoffrey Sampson’s paper highlights a peculiar fact about Chinese: the prevalence of coordinate compounds consisting of two near-synonyms. To illustrate this point, in a randomly chosen article of about 670 characters, I found as many as 74 such tokens, depending on how loosely one defines “near-synonyums”. That is almost 1/5 of the running text! Here are some instances: 稳定,民族,确定,捍卫,控制,完整,保持,良好,混乱,破坏, 快速,岛屿,基础,使用,武力,etc.1 Word-formation of this type is rare, for example in English. The closest examples I can think of are expressions like first and foremost, rules and regulations, and twists and turns.

 

Abstract 摘要
The Chinese pattern discussed by Geoff Sampson is surely remarkable, but it’s not enigmatic, and it’s certainly not paradoxical. Morphological responses to natural phonetic tendencies are encountered quite frequently in language change. The linguistic system, with its myriad phonetic and semantic pressures effecting changes simultaneously and at times antagonistically, always emerges functionally unscathed, its semantic clarity intact. The crux of the matter is this: Sampson is casting his net too narrowly, focusing on the morpheme (very roughly, 字; ts), rather than the lexeme (very roughly, 詞; ts). In the ongoing history of Mandarin, it is predominantly the lexeme, rather than the morpheme, over which the phonetic and semantic pressures on language use and structure demonstrably exert their influence.

Abstract 摘要
The author explores various ways to resolve the paradox: language change avoids creating excessive homophony, while sound changes in the history of Chinese have created a massive level of homophony. In this comment, I consider why homophones occur even though humans try to manifest one-to-one correspondence between form and meaning based on the CELEX lexical database of English, version 2.5 (1995) and the evolution of diatones in English, and its implication to Chinese. Table 1 shows the number of homophones classified according to the syllable number in columns and the number of words in a homophone set in rows. The total number of types of words classified according to the syllable number is also given in parentheses. We find that 11,980 or 22.8 % of 52,447 words are homophones in Present-day English. The number of homophones decreases as the number of words in a homophone set increases, and the percentage of homophones for each syllable number decreases as the syllable number increases. Table 1 suggests a threshold of homophones in English that can be tolerated. We also find that 4,743, or 70.2 % of 6,761 one syllable words and 4,509, or 27.3% of 18,564 two syllable words are homophones, and they form 77.2% of all homophones.

Abstract 摘要
Several recent papers (Silverman 2010; Kaplan 2011; Wedel et al. 2013a,b) have presented evidence in favor of the longstanding functional load hypothesis (Martinet 1952; Hockett 1967), arguing that phoneme pairs that distinguish many words are unlikely to undergo merger, and that this phenomenon can be detected in sufficiently large datasets. In contrast with some other approaches (e.g., King 1967), these recent studies assume that functional load operates as a statistical tendency: homophony avoidance is one factor among many that influences the course of sound change, and does not by itself predict whether a given pair of sounds will merge or not. Geoffrey Sampson observes that many of the sound changes that have occurred in the history of Chinese involve merger, and that the result of these mergers is homophony on a massive scale. He notes that homophone creation of this magnitude is unexpected if there is indeed a tendency for pairs of sounds with high functional load to avoid merger.

Abstract 摘要
Most combinations of morphemes in early Chinese are generative. Therefore, the morpheme is the basic grammatical unit. In other words, morphemes and words are not distinguishable in early Chinese. In modern Chinese, however, combinations of morphemes may be generative or non-generative. Morphemes in non-generative combinations are not basic units but rather constituents of basic units. From an evolutionary perspective, the basic units of the Chinese language developed from a single tier (morpheme/word) to a double tier (morpheme and word) constitution (Wang 2015). Interestingly, some researchers have correlated monosyllabic to multisyllabic change, phonological simplification, and language contact. Scholars like Wang (1958) hypothesized that the latter two cause the syllabic change. Conversely, Zhang (1939) argued that the simplification of phonology does not cause an increase of homophones if the vocabulary is limited. He suggested that the great lexical expansion during the Western Zhou dynasty and the Spring and Autumn period activated multisyllabication. Additionally, Lü (1963) supported this theory based on twentieth-century observations of a significant increase of disyllabic words that were void of preceding phonological changes. Commenting on the above theories, Sampson (2015) points out that “if it should be that the shift from monosyllabic to disyllabic words took place before the contrast-eliminating sound changes, those changes would not have created much homophony between words when they occurred, so Chinese would not be an exception to the generalization about homophony avoidance” (emphasis his). However, he rejects this possibility based on indirect evidence (for more details please refer to his paper). One example is that the type of synonym compounding seems to be ‘pointlessly redundant’ if it arose earlier than phonological mergers.

Abstract 摘要
Professor Sampson’s paper sets out with a somewhat nonchalant equation of the distinction be¬tween zì 字 and cí 詞 (p.1). But it is precisely this relationship which needs to be detailed against the diachrony of disyllabicity, tonogenesis, word length, prosody and frequency during various stages of premodern Chinese, before we can be sure whether we are dealing with enigma or just with messy data.

Abstract 摘要
Professor Sampson’s paper discusses a key issue in Chinese exegesis, philology and linguistics with traditional assumptions and contemporary explorations. The argument and the analysis given by Professor Sampson are very inspirational and thought-provoking. In the following, I would like to provide some preliminary thoughts on the issues involved in his paper.

Abstract 摘要
I am very grateful to the commentators for their responses to my paper. These are thoughtful, interesting, and diverse. I can only hope that the following amounts to a worthy reply. …… The enigma remains. But I thank the commentators most warmly for the stimulation arising from our shared attempts to seek a solution.

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