Volume 48, No 1
This paper discusses a new ‘Multi-Register and Four-Level’ (RL) tonal model. Register is defined by phonation types. There are six major types of phonation, which define three Registers: H, M, and L. The RL model is an improvement over the traditional ‘five-point’ tonal scale. Its tenability depends on whether it can accommodate the three known five level tone systems. The most challenging case among the three is the Dong language of Gaoba, a variety of the Tai-Kadai family. A field investigation was conducted and the five Gaoba level tones were reexamined. It was found the highest level tone in Gaoba is produced with a falsetto voice. Gaoba Dong thus constitutes a piece of supportive, rather than counter, evidence for the RL model. Then we deal with several tonal systems with single-, double-, or triple-register(s). Note: The audio files described in the Supplementary Materials of this article can be accessed from AUDIO link located on the webpage: audio tracks
本文讨论了一个新的“分声域，每域四度”的标调法。声域由发声态定义。音系学中有六大类发声态（假声、张声、清声、僵声、带声、气声），一共定义高中低三个声域。分域四度制是五度制的细化和简化，其能否成立全看能否容纳已知的三个五平调语言，其中最具挑战的案例便是高坝侗語。本项研究实地调查並重新考察了高坝侗語的五個平调，发现他最高的那个平调是用假声发的。这就使得高坝五平调成为分域四度制的支持性证据，而非反例。本文还处理了另外几个声调系统，有的单声域，有的双声域，还有三声域的。 提示： 本文附录（Supplementary Materials）的录音资料可从链接收听到： 录音
Tone representation 标调法 Phonation types 发声态 Phonological registers 声域 Five level tones 五平调 The five-point scale 五度制 ‘Multi-Register and Four-Level’ (RL) tonal model 分域四度制 Gaoba Dong 高坝侗语
Chiew Pheng Phua 潘秋平
This paper aims to demonstrate that the yu-dative construction with the syntactic structure “V+DO+yu+IO” which is grounded in the SOCIAL domain, is a metaphorical extension from the caused motion construction grounded in the more basic SPATIAL domain. Since there is another dative construction with the syntactic structure “V+IO+DO” in Archaic Chinese, the semantic difference between the two and the diachronic significance of metaphorical extension in the coding of a GIVE event would be further explored. It will also be shown that there is an inherent affinity between dative and causative constructions as both the double-object dative and yu-dative constructions could be further extended to encode an event of causativity.
本文从构式语法（Construction grammar）和认知语法（Cognitive grammar）的角度讨論了上古汉语的“V+DO+YU+IO”与格结构。我们尝试证明上述的与格结构是从“V+DO+YU+IO”的“使之移动”结构（Caused-motion construction）发展出来的。文中也比较了上古汉语中的两类不同的与格结构，进而指出上古汉语中的与格结构和使动结构有密切的关系。
Archaic Chinese 上古汉语 Dative construction 与格结构 Construction Grammar 构式语法 Cognitive Grammar 认知语法
The Zhuang language is divided into two main varieties, the northern variety and the southern variety. This paper describes the lexicology of the northern variety of the Zhuang language, and its focus is on word formation, and especially Chinese loanword formation. Based on syllable structures, words are classified into monosyllabic word, disyllabic word, and tri-syllabic word. Words are formed by compounding, affixing and reduplicating. The Chinese loanwords for everyday use account for 30-40 per cent of the total vocabulary and the Chinese loanwords for culture, education, current affairs, politics and so on amount to 60-70 per cent. The paper discusses loan processes and the classification of loanwords into old loanwords and new.
Zhuang language 壮语 Word structure 词结构 Zhuang word formation 词组构 Kam-Tai languages 壮侗语 （台-卡岱语） Chinese loanwords汉借词 Syntactic and semantic compound 语义及句法复合词
分辨近义结构: 以語料库为本研究中文"连...都"及"连...也" 句式
Chueh-chen Wang 王珏珵, Lily I-wen Su 苏以文
This paper takes a corpus-driven approach to re-examine the widespread synonymy view regarding Mandarin lian…dou and lian…ye, through a scrutiny of how they are actually manifested in natural language use. With corpus data, first of all, we verify the constructional statuses of lian…dou and lian…ye, and show that the two constructions are crucially distinguished via a split preference of focalization. Second, we argue that the split preference can be adequately explained by a comparison between the usage patterns of ye and dou. Third, our findings suggest an inheritance effect and interaction between related constructions. Finally, it is proposed that the constructionist approaches will benefit from investigating such subtleties in discourse usage as revealed in this study.
根据语料库所搜集到的自然语料, 本论文检视过往将中文里的“连…都”与“连…也” 两连词视为同义的正确性。 我们先证实此二连词的确构成了所谓的‘句式结构’,并指出它们其实并不同义 — 因为‘也’与‘都’的语意不同,“连…都”与“连…也”所着重的语意焦点也不相同。本研究因而凸显了构式的来源及语言互动对于语意了解的重要性。也说明了构式语法理论可藉由分析言谈篇章及大量的真实语料,充分解释类似的语言结构之间的微妙差异。
Argument structure 论元结构 Construction 句式结构 Focalization 焦点 Synonymy 同义词
Manson Cheuk-Man Fong 方卓敏, James William Minett
The widespread use of modern-day electronic devices with Chinese text input functionalities has allowed Chinese to be typewritten and exchanged at an unprecedented rate. To serve these growing needs, continuous efforts have been made to improve the performance of Chinese input methods, which come in three main types: root-based, stroke-based and sound-based. In this paper, the precursors of the present day Chinese input methods, including some standard indexing systems of sinograms (i.e., Chinese characters) and transliteration schemes of spoken Chinese, are first introduced, followed by some of the most popular methods that exemplify the three types. Then, general comparisons between these three types of methods are provided. In particular, the encoding efficiencies of nine methods in current use are evaluated quantitatively using a set of four criteria, and it is found that root-based methods perform the best of the three types of methods in this regard. The practical values of the other two types of methods should not be diminished, however, especially because stroke-based methods are easier to learn than root-based methods, while sound-based methods can relieve the user from the need to retrieve the visual forms of sinograms. The paper concludes with considerations over the implementation aspects of Chinese input methods, from which are generalized several pointers for future developments.
Chinese input methods 中文输入法 Root-based input methods 字根类输入法 Stroke-based input methods 笔划类输入法 Sound-based input methods 拼音类输入法
Jisheng Zhang 张吉生, Jeroen M. van de Weijer
A phonological analysis of the underlying tone features of tone sandhi in light of feature geometrical theory discovers a complicated phonological opacity in Shaoxing trisyllabic tone sandhi in terms of tone feature spreading or/and delinking. However, it is well-documented that the classic Optimality Theory (Prince & Smolensky 1993) fails to explain phonological opacity. Based on McCarthy’s (2007) new theory—-Optimality Theory with Candidate Chains (OT-CC) , this paper presents an explicit explanation of the phonological rules of Shaoxing trisyllabic tone sandhi by examining the underlying tone feature behavior, which strongly suggests that OT-CC is a minimal explanatory approach to phonological opacity cross-linguistically.
在特征几何的理论框架内看连读变调的底层声调特征表现形式，绍兴方言三字组连读变调规则涉及复杂的音系隐晦性，但经典优选论无法解析音系的不透明性。本文运用McCarthy (2007) 提出的候选项链优选论（OT-CC），从音系层面对绍兴方言三字组连读变调时声调特征的表现形式进行解释性分析。实证分析说明OT-CC提供了解释音系隐晦性的简洁、明了、准确的方法。
Shaoxing Chinese 绍兴方言 Tone sandhi 连读变调 Tone feature 声调特征 Phonological opacity 音系隐晦性 OT-CC 候选项链优选论
Tsan Huang 黄璨
This study investigated the effect of tonal systems on perception with speakers of Beijing, Rugao and Yantai, as well as American English. It was found that while phonetic similarities may influence the perception of all listeners in a “same”/”different” AX discrimination task with a short ISI and a speeded response, such effects may be strengthened or weakened by one’s knowledge of a particular tonal system or systems. Thus, the Chinese listeners showed different perceptual patterns from AE listeners. But there are also differences among the three groups of Chinese listeners. For the highly bi-dialectal Yantai listeners, phonological information may be retrievable from both their L1 and L2 lexica, while inter-dialectal tone category correspondence between Putonghua and Rugao had an impact on Rugao listeners’ perception. Such results have interesting implications for theories of phonological representation and speech perception models.
Chinese (Mandarin) dialects 汉语（北方话）方言 Tone perception 声调感知 Tonal systems 声调系统
The article studies a type of verb complement structure in Yuan drama,describing its distribution and structure and comparing it with corresponding structure in Shandong and Wu dialects, and discussing the cause for its development.
Yuan Drama 元曲 Verb complement structure 动补格式 Modern Chinese dialects 汉语方言 Zhuzi Yulei 朱子语类
Contact between two cultures and languages often gives rise to linguistic borrowing. In tracing the development of a set of English loanwords in six texts compiled in the 19th and early 20th centuries for teaching Westerners Cantonese, it is observed that these loanwords are pronounced with a basic tone in the 19th century texts but with a changed tone in the 20th century texts. Changed tones are used to signal familiarity, a function that is observed in the Cantonese historical texts. The present study suggests that the use of changed tones on a loanword is an indication of its integration into the lexicon of Cantonese. The examination of the six texts shows that such an integration process might take several decades to complete.
Changed tones 变调 Loanwords 借词 Early Cantonese 早期粤语
Xiaohong Wen 温晓虹
This study investigates the acquisition of the ba-construction by English-speaking learners of Chinese. Written sentences produced by CFL learners at three proficiency levels and NSs were examined. The findings show that, although some learners at the elementary level were able to produce the ba-construction, their production on average was much lower than that of NSs. Three characteristics have been revealed. First, learners are in the process of conceptualizing the function of the ba-construction as shown by their generally correct word order and semantic organizations on one hand, and misplacing or missing components of the verbal complement on the other. Second, when given a choice, learners at the lower levels uniformly used the simpler structures of the verbal complement that present more transparent form-meaning mapping. Native-like variations only started to appear at the advanced level. Third, pragmatics and discourse also played a role, which may partially explain the verbal complement errors made by learners.
本文调查了英语为母语的汉语学习者对把字句的习得过程。语料来自汉语水平为初、中、高三个年级的学生对指定的图画所做的书面描述。尽管把字句较早地出现于学生的中介语中 （如在低年级就出现了把字句），学生所造的把字句的频率远远低于操本族语的中国人。研究结果表明三点。第一，把字句的习得过程包括对其语用功能进行认识与概念化的过程， 学习者一方面能够造出语序和语义正确的句式，另一方面却出现大量的动补成分丢失的错误。第二，在可以选择的条件下，低年级的学生一致采用了比较简单的，在语序和语义之间有较清晰的一对一关系的补语表达方式，不同形式的运用只是在语言水平的高级阶段才出现。第三，语用和篇章也会直接影响到把字句的习得，在所收集的数据中，不少偏误片说明了这一点。
Chinese language acquisition 汉语习得 Chinese grammar acquisition 汉语语法习得 The ba construction 把字句 Acquisition of the Chinese verb-complement structure 动补结构习得 Form-meaning connections 语言形式与意义的连接
Cantonese is spoken by between 50 and 70 million people worldwide (depending on which source is cited), is the dominant language of the economically very successful territory of Hong Kong, and is enjoying a rising importance in southern Mainland China. Further, Cantonese exerts, through the medium of Canto-pop and other types of popular culture, a substantial cultural influence across the whole Sinosphere, second only to its close relative, Mandarin. For these reasons, Cantonese is undoubtedly one of the largest and most important languages in the world, regardless of which criteria are used to determine this. Nevertheless, it has often in popular consciousness been overshadowed by Mandarin, and erroneously even been demoted to the status of dialect. It is therefore particularly gratifying to see that Matthews and Yip’s Cantonese: A Comprehensive Grammar, originally from 1994, has now reappeared in a second, revised and improved edition. This is good news for all Sinologists interested in this fascinating language, as well as for typologists working on differences between Sinitic languages. The language described in this grammar is Hong Kong Cantonese, which is the culturally most influential variety, and also the variety spoken by the authors themselves. The present edition includes written Cantonese characters alongside the transcription. This is a valuable addition to the book, not only for the reasons outlined in the Introduction (to enhance readability for readers knowledgeable in Chinese, and to allow ambitious readers to learn written Cantonese). For readers with some knowledge of Mandarin but with little or no understanding of the different sound changes which have taken place in the Sinitic languages, the use of Cantonese characters gives the reader a rough clue as to which Cantonese words are cognate with corresponding Mandarin words and which are not (or perhaps, which are perceived by the Cantonese-speaking community as cognate, as there are a few mismatches). Further, the illustration of written Cantonese, as it is seen in authentic popular media and internet culture, is a neat counterexample to the myth that Mandarin and Cantonese are simply two spoken dialects sharing a common written language. In fact, much of the contribution made by this work (or any good description of Cantonese) involves a certain degree of myth-busting. Some truths can never be repeated too often, e.g. that the Cantonese tonal system involves six phonemically distinct tones in Hong Kong (and seven in Guangzhou), not nine, ten or even eleven, as sometimes reported. Similarly, the perceived structural similarity between Mandarin and Cantonese is often exaggerated, since the formal register of Cantonese contains countless verbatim morpheme-for-morpheme loans of entire constructions from Mandarin, as the authors point out. The best antidote for these kinds of myths is a detailed and well-structured description of the actual facts, and the authors generally succeed well with this ambition.
Tai-Kadai has been studied as a language group since Benedict (1942) proposed the model of “Thai-Kadai-Indonesian language complex.” As Li (1973) holds a different opinion that Thai is part of the Sino-Tibetan language family, discussions on the position of Thai/Tai languages have continued, and its significance is profound. On the one hand, many theories such as “word family correspondence” (Yan 1979), “deep correspondence” (Xing 1993, 1995), and “Rank theory” (Chen 1996) have been proposed to make a more precise judgment of linguistic relationships. On the other hand, scholars have made detailed investigations into individual languages in this group, both from synchronic and diachronic perspectives, in order to excavate more linguistic facts and gain a better understanding of these languages. Among these studies Li’s (1977) reconstruction stands out as a splendid achievement. The book Tai-Kadai Languages, summarizing studies from genetic subgrouping to synchronic description, is a representative work in Tai and Kadai linguistics.
Kuang Yu Chen 陈光宇
An International Conference on Shang and Early Chinese Civilization was held on November 11-12, 2011 at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey. The organizing committee members are Professors Kuang Yu Chen, Ching-I Tu, Dietrich Tschanz (Rutgers University), Feng Li (Columbia University), and Ki-Cheung Chu (Tunghai University). The focus of the conference is on Shang – the second recorded dynasty in Chinese history and the first one that yielded written documents in the form of oracle bone inscriptions (OBI) and bronze inscriptions (BI). Hundreds of thousands of them have been unearthed in Anyang, Henan and other places in China since the beginning of last century. OBI establishes Shang as the first Chinese and thus the first Asian civilization whose existence is supported by both textual and archeological evidence. Standing side by side with Egyptian, Mayan, and Sumerian, OBI represents one of the four original writing systems ever invented independently in human history. The Shang scholarship not only plays a pivotal role in bridging the archeological China and the textual China, it is also of great import to the comparative study of early world civilization. Nonetheless, Shang scholarship has not enjoyed the attention in the western world as compared to other original civilizations such as Egyptian and Mayan. For example, very few universities in western countries offer courses on OBI, or for that matter, early China.
Volume 40, No 2
The paper reviews some representative etymologies so far suggested for Hé 河 ‘the Yellow River’. It pays particular attention to the methodologies involved in etymological enquiries. There are basically two of them. One is the comparative method as developed in the Indo-European languages and applied to the Sino-Tibetan and Tibeto-Burman languages. Another one is a traditional method based on the evidence available in Chinese itself. It has roots in Sòng 宋 times (ca. 13th c.). Known widely as Chinese word-family studies (漢語同族詞之研究), the first systematic work is by a Japanese scholar Tōdō Akiyasu 藤堂明保 (1914-1985) in his D.Lit. thesis entitled Jōko Kango no tango kazoku no kenkyū (上古漢語の單語家族の研究, Tokyo University, 1962). Its revised and enlarged version (1965) and other notable works are critically discussed. There is no doubt that Chinese language was used before the emergence of oracle-bone inscriptions (abbreviated hereinafter as OBI) ca. 1230 B.C. (lasting to ca. 1046 B.C.), but the phonological and morphological reconstructions we have for Old Chinese cannot be considered to precede the date of the emergence of OBI. We have thus redefined etymology: it studies the earliest attested meanings of words, of their relationship to those in different languages thought of the same origin, and in the case of many words, but not all of them, be considered in terms of the interface of palaeography and etymology. This paper thus attempts to bridge the two disciplines. Even though the Shāng scribes may not have been the creators of the graphs themselves, they must have continued the traditions of the original graph makers. The Shāng scribes lived more than a thousand years earlier than the users of the clerical script of Hàn time. Many bone and bronze graphs reflect the words they were writing, often subtly mirroring their meanings. How this last aspect has bearing on the etymology of Hé is the major theme of this paper. Not only linguistic but also palaeographical and archaeological analyses in this paper have led to a conclusion that the etymology of Hé is related to both the phonetic and shape of an adze handle, kē/*khâi 柯. This in and of itself is not new, but other details are novel including a finer analysis of the predecessors of 河 written like and , as well as that of such Zhōuyuán 周原 graphs as and . The former graph consists of the water element and a standing human figure with its head turning backward and carrying a pole with some load. The latter one consists of the water element and a similar human figure, but the carrying pole and the load are abbreviated. The DT of the former is , the latter 𣲪. These forms reflect a scribal tradition different from the predecessors of 河, and the word represented by these forms is hè/*gâiB 荷 ‘to carry on the shoulder’ and because the sound was close to hé/*gâi 河, actually closer than kē/*khâi 柯 was to it, the graph was loaned to express the Yellow River, Hé 河.
Yellow River 黄河 Hé 河 Etymology 词源 Palaeography 古文字 Graphic design 造字意图
Zhang Cheng 张赪
This article investigates classifiers from the Han Dynasty to the Period of Wei and Jin Kingdoms and Northern and Southern Dynasties, especially the general classifiers “”mei2″” and “”ge4″”. It is found that the two classifiers have been used as general classifiers as soon as they became to be classifiers from nouns; and they have been used mainly with the nouns that did not have specific classifiers. The general classifiers matured at the time when classifiers were emerging in Chinese. They also increased the scale of classifiers used and showed that the grammatical category of classifier has existed in Chinese since the Han Dynasty although there were not too many classifiers at that time. Motivation of classifiers used in Chinese is grammar not semantic.
本文考察了汉到魏晋南北朝时期的名词与量词的搭配情况，并重点考察了通用量词“枚、个”的使用情况，指出“枚、个”从一 产生就是通用量词，在汉语量词发展的初期汉语通用量词就成熟了，它们主要用于当时没有专用量词的名词，扩大和稳定汉语量 词的使用。汉语量词范畴产生的原因是语法的而不是语义的。
Numeral-classifiers 量词 General classifiers 通用量词 Syntactic change 句法演变
Mingchung Cheng 郑明中
This study frames the diachronic change of the nasalized diminutives in Wu in terms of Optimality Theory (OT). First, the synchronic patterns and the diachronic stages of the nasalized diminutives in Wu are classified. Next, OT is applied to these nasalized diminutives with a common set of constraints. Finally, it is shown that the synchronic alternations of the nasalized diminutives result from constraint rerankings. Moreover, IDENT-SD[long], DEP-SD and IDENT-SD[nas] stand out among all constraints. Their rerankings are crucially related not only to the diachronic change of the nasalized diminutives, but also to the linguistic motivation behind the change.
本研究在优选理论的架构下探讨吴语鼻化小称的历时变化。研究首先归纳吴语鼻化小称的共时类型及历时演变的阶段，紧接着运 用优选理论来分析这些共时异地的鼻化小称词。结果显示，吴语鼻化小称的形态差异可以透过一组相同制约的不同排序而获得解 释，充分体现优选理论的核心概念：「语言的差异导因于制约排序的不同」。再者，IDENT-SD[long]、DEP-SD与IDENT-SD [nas]在所有的制约当中的地位特别重要。这三个制约的位阶提升，不仅能解释鼻化小称词的历时演变，更可以说明语言演变背 后的动机。
Diminutive 小称 Nasalization 鼻化 Optimality theory 优选理论 Language change 语言演变 Wu dialects 吴语
Zhaojin Du 杜兆金
This paper, collecting and analyzing the audio material of spoken Chinese by the Uygur people, explores the matching rules of initial consonants of Uygur and Chinese and attempts to explain these matching rules. According to the paper, the Uygur-Chinese initial consonant matching is restricted by initial consonant similarity, which then helps to reach the conclusion that the initial consonant matching, being a process of Uyghur’s coordinating and adapting to Chinese, has a characteristic foundation.
本文对维吾尔族人说汉语的录音材料进行整理和分析，全面考察维吾尔语和汉语声母匹配规则，并尝试给予合理的解释。研究发 现，维汉声母匹配规则受辅音声母相似度大小的制约；语言类型上有很大差异的维、汉的声母匹配受到语音系统格局的潜在支持 ，有其深厚的特征结构基础。维汉声母匹配是施配语(维吾尔语)主动协调和适应受配语（汉语）的过程。
Language contact 语言接触 Initial consonant match 声母匹配 feature 特征 Initial consonant similarity 声母相似度
The thesis of tone merger in northern Chinese dialects was first proposed by Wang (1982), and further developed by Lien (1986), the migration of IIb (Yangshang) into III (Qu) being a common characteristic. The present work aims to provide an update on the current state of tone merger in northern Chinese, with a special focus on Dalian, which is a less well-known Mandarin dialect spoken in Liaoning province in Northeast China. According to Song (1963), four lexical tones are observed in citation form, i.e. 312, 34, 213 and 53 (henceforth Old Dalian). Our first-hand data obtained from a young female speaker of Dalian (henceforth Modern Dalian) suggest an inventory of three lexical tones, i.e. 51, 35 and 213. The lexical tone 312 in Old Dalian, derived from Ia (Yinping), is merging with 51, derived from III (Qu), in the modern system. This variation across decades is consistent with dialects spoken in the neighboring Shandong province, where a reduced tonal inventory of three tones is becoming more and more frequent. However, the tone merger in Modern Dalian is incomplete on two grounds. On the one hand, a slight phonetic difference is observed between these two falling tones: both of them have similar F0 values, but the falling contour derived from Ia (Yinping) has a longer duration compared with the falling contour derived from III (Qu). Nevertheless, the speaker judges the contours to be the same. On the other hand, the underlying contrasts of these two contours surface in tone sandhi contexts, such that the lexical tone 312 of Old Dalian emerges in combination forms in Modern Dalian. The above facts attest that sound change is not lexically abrupt, and could take a long period of time to complete its course (Wang 1969).
北方方言的声调融合论最早由王士元提出。根据连金发于1986年针对四百八十个北方方言声调特征的地理分布研究显示，阳上归入去声乃北方方言的共同特征。本文以大连话为基石，针对目前北方方言声调融合的现状作一剖析。 根据宋学早期的文献，老大连话有四个单字调。我们收集的第一手资料显示新大连话只有三个声调，阴平调有归入去声调的趋势。此发现与邻近山东省许多方言近年来渐渐从四个声调演变成三个声调的趋势一致。 进一步的语音分析发现新大连话的声调融合呈现不完整的状态。阴平和去声虽然皆读作降调，但两者的基频有些微的不同。再者，阴平和去声的底层差异也在两字组连读变调出现，呈现不同的变调型态。以上两个发现佐证王士元针对语音流变提出的词汇扩散论。
Tone merger 声调融合 Near merger 近似融合 Tone sandhi 连续变调 Optimality Theory 优选理论
Nasal vowels are widely attested in the sound inventories of the world’s languages. It is usually assumed among phoneticians and universalists that the historical development of distinctive vowel nasalization consists of two ordered processes, i.e. vowel nasalization and nasal deletion, that is, the vowels become contextually nasalized before a nasal consonant at some stage in history; then the nasal ending is subsequently lost and vowel nasalization on the preceding vowel becomes distinctive and phonological. However, not much work has been done to reconsider or to provide phonetic evidence for or against this two-step account. For instance, the manner and motivation of the process of nasal deletion, which is generally assumed as a simple and one-step change, has not been studied in any detail. In this connection, we examine in the present study the aerodynamic characteristics of vowel nasalization in Xiangxiang Chinese, a representative of the Old Xiang Dialects of Chinese, which has a rich set of nasals, nasalized and nasal vowels (both monophthongs and diphthongs) and allows combinations of oral and nasal consonants and vowels, and discuss the implications of the current results as well as those from studies on vowel nasalization in other languages for the theories of sound change. In particular, our intention is to test the two-step account and to reconstruct the processes involved in the historical development of nasal vowels.
Nasals 鼻辅音 Nasal vowels 鼻元音 Nasalized vowels 鼻化元音 Aerodynamic characteristic 气流特征 Historical development 历史演变 Distinctive vowel nasalization 具有区别音位作用的元音鼻化
Hongzhi Wang 王弘治
The apical vowels have been subjected to two stages of sound changes. In the first stage, lasting from the period of late Tang Dynasty and the Five Dynasties to the Ming Dynasty, the sound change was conditioned originally by the Jing-initial group in the kaikou (open) finals of the rime group Zhi. The main vowel has undergone centralization from [i]>[ɯ]. Then the change gradually spread in the same rime group to those bearing the Zhuang and Zhang initial groups, and the Ri-initial as well, which results in the formation of the 「Zhi-Si」 Rime category in Zhongyuan Yinyun, the Rhyme Dictionary compiled in Yuan. The second stage probably spans from the Ming Dynasty up to the present. Conditioned by the emerging retroflex initials and triggered by push-chain sound shift of front vowels, the central high vowel underwent further raising, and, together with the high-front vowel, changed ultimately into the apical vowels in the phonology of the diverse dialects of modern Chinese. The paper addresses the origin of the apical vowels in Chinese, with its focus mainly on the first stage of sound change process.
The 「Zhi-Si」 Rime Category 支思韵 The Out-of-chain Shift of High Vowels 高顶出位 Late Middle Chinese phonology 近代音
Stano Kong 江丕賢
This empirical study investigates English speakers’ comprehension of count mass classifiers in L2 Chinese. The participants for the study were 62 English-speaking adults learning Chinese in Taiwan. The results of the study indicate the following: (1) In early stages of L2 acquisition, English speakers do not seem to honour the count mass distinction in Chinese, contrary to suggestions made by studies investigating English-speaking and Chinese-speaking children (Soja 1992, Soja et al. 1991, Chien et al. 2003). (2) The predominant use of the general classifiers ge suggests that it does not require the noun which it denotes to be of a particular type. (3) There are between-groups developmental differences probably due to lexical learning. (4) An asymmetrical development between the interpretation of count-mass classifiers and the CLP structures with de modifying count classifiers raises a question concerning the source of variability in L2 acquisition. Two theories, namely the Full Transfer/ Full Access hypothesis and the Partial Availability of UG hypothesis, in relation to parameter-resetting in SLA within the framework of Principles and Parameters are set out to explain the divergence. It coheres with what Hawkins and Hattori (2006) suggest that the apparent native-like L2 performance may not be equal to the underlying properties in the grammar of native speakers.
本实验研究探究英文使用者对中文可数和不可数的单位词的理解。参与研究得对像是62位在台湾学习中文的英语使用者。研究结果显示: (1) 在早期第二语言习得阶段，英文使用者不认为中文可数和不可数的单位词仅限于中文中，这论点不支持关于英文和中文使用者的学童的研究。(2) 广义的单位用词 “个”的使用被认为名词不需要被单位用词限定。(3) 实验组别间的发展差异有可能系关系于辞汇的学习程度不同 (4) 一个不对等的发展介于可数和不可数的单位词和使用 “的” 的单位词结构衍生出关于第二语研习得的差异性。两条关于参数重设理论之第二语研习得的普遍性语法的假说: 全转换/全运行假说和部分运行框架于原则语参数理论，被用以解释习得差异。它不同于Hawkins和 Hattori 在2006年提出关于相似于母语的第二语言表现很可能不对等于该语言语法的性质。
Classifiers 单位词 Full access 全运行 Partial access 部分运行 Interpretability Hypothesis 解释性假说
书评: Introduction to Chinese Dialectology 严棉: 《汉语方言学导论》
Robert S. Bauer 包睿舜
1. Introduction As one of the world’s more linguistically diverse and complex countries, China is home to six major language families (or phyla), namely, Altaic, Austro-Asiatic, Austronesian, Austro-Tai, Indo-European, and Sino-Tibetan; belonging to the Sino-half of this last family are many varieties or方言 fangyan ‘dialects’ (and also known as topolects1) of the Chinese or Han language 漢語; in addition, there are several dozen non-Han languages spoken by officially- and unofficially-recognized ethnic minorities or nationalities (the dichotomy between Han 漢族 and non-Han 非漢族 shows some correspondence/overlap between terms for language 語言 and race 民族, both of which are important and sensitive sociopolitical issues in China). It is widely known both within and outside China that some of the Chinese “dialects”, such as Chiuchow (Chaozhou), Cantonese, Shanghainese, Fukiense, Hakka, etc., are all mutually unintelligible with each other, and so on that basis these varieties could just as well be referred to as languages, as is already being done by some Western and Chinese linguists; however, it is mainly for historical, political, and cultural reasons that within China these varieties are termed dialects. Multiple distinctive varieties of the Chinese language very likely began emerging, developing, and spreading to other regions more than three millennia ago. It was just about two thousand years ago that the world’s first book that documented in some detail the correlation between geographical differences and linguistic variation was written in China by the Western Han dynasty scholar Yang Xiong 揚雄 (58 BCE – 18 CE) who was from Chengdu in Sichuan province in southwestern China, namely, 《輶軒使者絕代語釋別國方言》, which is usually shortened to 《方言》 Fangyan and dated to about the beginning of the Common Era. Curiously, this very early interest in the local speech varieties within China did not set in motion the further development of a Chinese tradition of dialectology – this was not to happen until the early 20th century: As Margaret Yan Mian 嚴棉 has observed in her book, Introduction to Chinese Dialectology, no investigative work explicitly devoted to the Chinese dialects was produced until Zhang Binglin 章炳麟 (章太炎) (1869-1936) classified the Chinese dialects into nine major groups. From 1910 to 1912 Bernard Karlgren 高本漢 (1889-1978), as a young Swedish (瑞典) student (not Swiss 瑞士, as misstated on page 20), had traveled around China with a questionnaire survey comprising 3,100 Chinese characters and collected detailed data on their pronunciations in 22 Chinese dialects, and so to Karlgren must go the credit for having carried out the first extensive, systematic survey of the Chinese dialects that recorded their phonetic diversity. In addition, he utilized this material for reconstructing earlier historical stages of the Chinese language, and so he also has the distinction of being the first scholar to apply to Chinese the historical comparative method which had been developed in Europe in the 19th century. Karlgren’s survey data were incorporated into his Ph.D. dissertation which was later published as the first part of Études sur la phonologie chinoise between 1915 and 1926. The value of Karlgren’s work was later recognized by three of China’s most prominent linguists of the time, Chao Yuen Ren趙元任, Li Fang-kuei李方桂, and Lo Chang-pei羅常培, who translated Études into Chinese and then published it under the title 《中國音韻學研究》 in 1940 (for an account of Karlgren’s academic career and contributions to historical Chinese phonology see Ramsey [1989:126-133]). The 20th century witnessed an enormous output in studies of the Chinese dialects to match the wealth of dialects that were being spoken. Even war with Japan during the 1930s and 1940s did not stop dialect research, as scholars moved further inland and turned their attention to the speech varieties (including some non-Han minority languages) which they heard being spoken around them in those areas. As Yan has stated in her book’s preface, her own interest in the Chinese dialects was stimulated by her personal experiences with family members and friends who spoke a variety of dialects. Indeed, multidialectalism has long been a linguistic feature of the individual speaker in China: it has been quite common for a person to acquire two or more Chinese varieties, depending on his or her familial and social circumstances, or even because of necessity. Within the family the mother and father may both speak different dialects if they have come from different places, and so their child who is exposed to the two varieties may learn both. Then there is the local variety spoken outside the home by the child’s peer group and this may differ again. At school the language of instruction may be another variety, such as a prestige regional variety that is centered on the provincial capital. Then at the top of the language pyramid is the standard national variety which traditionally has been northern Mandarin and which differs significantly from the numerous local and regional varieties spoken across central and southern China. While a few books written in English with chapters on the Chinese dialects have been published over the past couple of decades, e.g. Norman’s Chinese (1988), Ramsey’s The Languages of China (1989), , and Thurgood and LaPolla’s The Sino-Tibetan Languages (2003), Margaret Yan’s Introduction to Chinese Dialectology is the first full-length book that is devoted entirely to this subject. Given her lifetime of experience carrying out fieldwork on and writing about the Chinese dialects, she is especially well qualified to write this invaluable volume on Chinese dialectology. As she has recalled, the 1960s were her formative years in learning about Chinese dialectology and linguistics. At National Taiwan University she first studied with Tung T’ung-ho 董同龢 (to whom she has dedicated this book) and then worked as Tung’s research assistant at Academia Sinica. A few years later at NTU she worked as teaching assistant to William S-y. Wang who also served as an advisor when she pursued her Ph.D. degree at Stanford University in the early 1970s. At Cornell University she took classes with Chao Yuan Ren. Her long time service of teaching and research in the field shines throughout this book that brings introductory Chinese dialectology to a wider audience of English-speaking readers. That the Min dialects of Taiwan and Fujian have been the main area of her own research and publication is reflected in this book.
Shih-ping Wang 王世平
1. INTRODUCTION Applied linguistics (AL), in its diversity, reflects the variety of language teaching, learning and disciplines. When it comes to definitions of AL, confusion abounds. Schmitt and Celce-Murcia (2002, p. 1) propose that AL “is using what we know about (a) language, (b) how it is learned and (c) how it is used, in order to achieve some purpose or solve some problem in the real world.” McCarthy argues that AL “is essentially a problem-driven discipline…,” which can “test the applicability and replicability of linguistic theory and description… the “relationship between linguistics and its application is to be a fruitful partnership” (2001, p. 4). 2012 International Conference on Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching (ALLT) was held at National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, from April 19 to 21, 2012. Various issues in AL, linguistics and relevant areas were discussed. The 2012 conference of ALLT was held in conjunction with The Second Cross-strait Symposium on Foreign Language Teaching & Research, co-hosting with Xiamen University. Its theme is “Technological and Traditional Teaching & Learning,” including various general topics presented in Table 1. The major subjects of this conference, such as ESP, globalization, project-based teaching and learning, product-based teaching and learning, the traditional EAP teaching, and CALL and Web-based approaches, have become more and more admired along with the growing need of competent communicators at the current globalization epoch.
报告: 第三届语言声调问题国际研讨会（TAL 2012）
Wentao Gu 顾文涛
The Third International Symposium on Tonal Aspects of Languages (TAL 2012) was held in Nanjing, China during May 26-29, 2012. It was a long-awaited event following TAL 2004 (Beijing, China) and TAL 2006 (La Rochelle, France). After six years’ interruption, TAL was revived in Nanjing and also was promoted into a renowned international meeting. The website of TAL 2012 is www.tal2012.org. TAL 2012 was organized and chaired by Prof. Wentao Gu at Nanjing Normal University, supported by Nanjing Normal University, especially by the School of Chinese Language and Culture as well as the Institute of Linguistic Science and Technology. The conference venue is on the Suiyuan Campus of Nanjing Normal University. After the organizer’s efforts, TAL 2012 was jointly hosted by the International Speech Communication Association, the International Phonetic Association, the ISCA Speech Prosody Special Interest Group, the ISCA Special Interest Group on Chinese Spoken Language Processing, the Japan-China Science and Technology Exchange Association, the Phonetic Association of China, the Chinese Information Processing Society of China, the Acoustical Society of China, the Chinese Dialect Society, and the English Pronunciation Teaching and Research Association of China. All these ten international or domestic academic communities were deeply involved in this multidisciplinary symposium for tonal study. Tone is one of the most fascinating features in spoken languages, including not only lexical tones in tone languages but also pitch patterns (i.e. intonational tones) in non-tone languages. The theme of TAL 2012 is ‘Tonal Aspects across Tone and Non-Tone Languages’ which is a natural extension of the theme of TAL 2004, i.e. ‘with an Emphasis on Tone Languages.’ Following the heritage of the past two symposia, TAL 2012 continued to be focused on tone languages, covering studies of tones from phonetic, phonological, psychological, technological, and pedagogic points of view; but also encouraged the studies on tonal aspects of non-tone languages and singing. This symposium emphasized the relationship between phonetics and phonology of tones, the relationship between production and perception of tones, the modeling of tones, and the practical utilization of tonal information in spoken language processing. In particular, TAL 2012 extended its interests to neural sciences exploring the neural mechanisms of tone processing. The symposium provided an opportunity for linguists, phoneticians, psychologists, language educators, speech pathologists, and speech engineers from all over the world to get together to share and deepen their understanding of the form and function of tones in the languages of the world. TAL 2012 had attracted successfully the attention of phonetic and speech communities in the world. Although the timing of TAL 2012 overlapped seriously with several other phonetics-related conferences, TAL 2012 still received much more paper submissions than before. For each paper submission, three expert reviewers were assigned, among whom at least two reviewers were from overseas. Among 86 paper submissions, 60 papers were finally accepted for presentation. The rate of acceptance is below 70%. Among the accepted papers, there is obviously a concentration on Mandarin Chinese, but many other Chinese dialects are discussed as well, such as the dialects in Hong Kong, Shanghai, Taipei, Tianjin, and in lesser known places like Hohhot and Wuxi. There are also papers discussing the neighboring languages such as Black Miao of Yunnan, Kammu of Laos, Mo Piu of Vietnam, and Thai. More distantly, we have papers on two tone languages of Africa: Igbo in Nigeria, and Sesotho in South Africa. There is a strong tradition of tone studies in African languages, and it is important to understand how these tone languages are similar and/or different from the Asian ones. Instead of merely dealing with tones as static patterns, there are also many papers that discuss the dynamics of how these patterns interact in cases of sandhi, as well as how they sometimes neutralize and merge. Also very important are studies which examine tones and intonation from different theoretical perspectives as well as from different modeling approaches. Most impressively, this symposium has reports which examine how tones are processed neurophysiologically; for instance, how pitch patterns are normalized into discrete categories, how tones lateralize in the brain, and how top-down processes in perception integrate with those which are bottom-up. As Prof. Wang said in his welcoming remarks: It will be advances in this experimental dimension that will eventually move our area forward from description to explanation, to understand more and more deeply how these tiny rapid vibrations in our larynx came to play such an overwhelmingly important role in human communication. TAL 2012 is an indeed international meeting. There were altogether 130 participants from all five continents including 15 countries/areas. Among them, there are 68 from Mainland China, 20 from Europe, 18 from Hong Kong or Taiwan, 16 from America, 5 from other countries in Asia, 2 from Africa, and 1 from Oceania. To encourage students and young researchers to participate in the symposium, TAL 2012 successfully obtained the support from ISCA Grants, IPA Student Grants, and JCSTEA Student Grants. TAL 2012 became the first workshop (besides the flagship conference ICPhS) supported by the IPA Student Awards from the International Phonetic Association. After four tutorials on the afternoon of May 26, the opening ceremony of TAL 2012 was held on the morning of May 27. The Chair of TAL 2012, Prof. Wentao Gu opened the symposium with introductory remarks, which were followed by the welcoming speech by the Vice President of Nanjing Normal University, Prof. Baiqi Pan, and the Director of the Institute of Linguistic Science and Technology of NNU, Prof. Baojia Li. Then, seven distinguished scholars presented their welcoming addresses on behalf of different organizations, including Prof. Hiroya Fujisaki from the University of Tokyo (founder of TAL; Vice President of the Japan-China Science and Technology Exchange Association; Academician of Engineering Academy of Japan), Prof. William S-Y Wang from the Chinese University of Hong Kong (Editor of Journal of Chinese Linguistic; Academician of Academia Sinica), Prof. David House from KTH Royal Institute of Technology (Board member of the International Speech Communication Association), Prof. John Ohala from University of California at Berkeley (Council member and former President of the International Phonetic Association), Prof. Klaus Kohler from Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel (Editor of PHONETICA, and former President of the International Phonetic Association), Prof. Daniel Hirst from University of Provence (PAC member and founding Chair of the ISCA Speech Prosody Special Interest Group), and Prof. Aijun Li from Institute of Linguistics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (Vice Chair of the ISCA Special Interest Group on Chinese Spoken Language Processing, and Vice President of the Chinese Phonetic Association). Their exciting words gave great stimulation to the symposium. During the four-day symposium, there were altogether 70 presentations, including 6 keynote speeches, 4 tutorials, 9 presentations in two special sessions, 25 presentations in five oral sessions, and 26 presentations in two poster sessions. The details are listed below.
New Publication 出版消息
New Publication: The Cahiers de Linguistique — Asie Orientale (2011 Volume)
新书: 东亚语言学报 (2011 卷)