JCL Monograph Series NO.26 专著系列 26 卷 – 2016

Language evolution and changes in Chinese
语言演化与汉语变化
Edited by Ik-sang Eom 严翼相 and Zhang Weijia 张维佳

Abstract 摘要
What is Evolutionary Linguistics? Simply put, to me evolutionary linguistics is the study of language in the 21st century – in a multidisciplinary perspective that has special connections to anthropology and genetics (for how we evolved), to cognitive neuroscience (for how we learn and use language), to computer science (for how to model and simulate), and to several other disciplines. The core concern of evolutionary linguistics, of course, continues to be with the general and the particular properties of languages, their sounds, words, constructions, and usages, the special expertise of linguists. But this core concern is now studied within a much richer perspective than ever before. In 1973, the geneticist T. Dobzhansky wrote famously: “Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution”1, as biology re-oriented itself around evolutionary theory. The past decades have seen incredible breakthroughs in biology, as it successively unpackaged the human genome and reveal the inner workings of the intact brain. Similarly, I believe: “Nothing in linguistics makes sense except in the light of evolution”. Our mission is harder to achieve because language evolution is driven by two forces: one biological and one cultural. On the one hand, without the biological infrastructure, language could not have emerged to carry culture forward. On the other hand, once culture changes, language itself changes as well, with little intervention from biology. Whereas other species evolve largely by genetic mutations that slowly change their bodies, requiring numerous generations of transmission, a community can completely switch over to another language literally overnight. So the concepts and methods of biological evolutionary theory are not adequate to deal with language evolution. This difference between biological evolution and cultural evolution was one that Thomas Huxley was well aware of, one that he called to Darwin’s attention.

 

Keywords 关键词

Evolutionary linguistics 演化语言学

Abstract 摘要
When we refer to language evolution, we are considering something quite different from language change. The term “evolution” indicates a macro perspective, addressing such topics as the birth of language, the physiological mechanisms underlying mankind’s language skills, and the subsequent development of these capacities. On the other hand, “change” refers to alternations within a specific language, and is viewed from a relatively micro perspective.

 

Keywords 关键词

Language evolutionary 语言演化 Changes in Chinese 汉语变化

Article 文章

Abstract 摘要
How language emerged uniquely in our species is a central issue toward understanding the basis of our humanity. Giving the issue a name, such as ‘language organ’, and attributing it vaguely to some genetic mutation is not productive. Rather, the issue should be examined from the perspective of evolution theory. Here I suggest that the first phase transition, the trajectory toward language, started when we first assumed bipedal posture. This first phase transition occurred with the Australopithecine over 3,000,000 years ago. The second phase transition occurred with the emergence of our genus Homo over 2,000,000 years ago, when our ancestors exhibited symbolic behavior by producing and maintaining a variety of stone tools. The third occurred when primary communication changed from gestures and prosodies to sequences of syllables made up of vowels and consonants, which provided an efficient signal space; this occurred some 20,000 years ago with the emergence of our species Homo sapiens. The fourth phase transition was the invention of writing some 6,000 years ago, with numerous far reaching consequences.

要想理解人之所以为人的基础何在,那么探索语言如何独一无二地在人类涌现是个核心议题。把这个议题取个像「语言器官」(language organ)一类的名字,并把它含糊地归因于某种基因突变,是无济于事的作法。这个议题理应从演化论的观点加以检视。在此我主张,语言涌现的轨迹,始于我们首次采取双脚直立的姿势,这比科学分类上我们「人属」(Homo) 的出现还要早。第二个相变出现在当我们的祖先制造各类石器工具展现了象征行为时。促成语言涌现的第三个相变,出现在当口语沟通从手势和韵律的模式转变为主要依靠元音、辅音构成音节串时,这种转变为人类提供了有效的信号空间。第四个相变则是文字的发明,也造成了若干深远的影响。

 

Keywords 关键词

Evolutionary linguistics 演化语言学

Abstract 摘要
This article investigates the main mechanism of dialect formation, which is a fundamental issue in the historical development of Chinese. Based on the analyses of the distribution of modern dialects, the historical development of Han Chinese, and human language ability, this article proposes a new explanation for the formation of Chinese dialects. The analyses provided demonstrate that the main mechanism of dialect formation is imperfect language shift. Thus, the formation of Chinese dialects is the result of horizontal transmission, not the result of vertical transmission or even of a combination of vertical and horizontal transmission.

本文探讨汉语历史发展中的一个基本问题,汉语方言形成的主要机制。通过对现代方言分布,汉族发展历史,以及人的语言能力等方面的分析,本文对汉语方言形成提出新的解释。所提供的分析显示,汉语方言形成的主要机制是不完善语言转换。这样,方言形成的原因是“横向传递”的结果,不是“纵向传递”,也不是“纵向-横向传递”的综合结果。

 

Keywords 关键词

Dialect formation 方言形成 Horizontal transmission 横向传递 Language shift 语言转换

Abstract 摘要
Chinese underwent the most complex processes of sound change during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). We can reconstruct phonological developments and special characteristics over this period of 300 years by studying the extensive record preserved in the Ming Dynasty rhyme books, rhyme tables, and other relevant materials. This article discusses 14th to 17th century changes to initials and finals, analyzing in particular the texts Hongwu zhengyun (1375), Yunlue yitong (1442), Yunlue huitong (1642), and Jiaotai yun (1603). In providing a comprehensive overview of phonological developments revealed through these texts, the article focuses on recent research results of Taiwan-based scholars which, despite their high level of achievement, may not be well known in broader academic circles.

本文针对汉语十四世纪到十七世纪之间语音变化的状况和细节做了全盘的讨论,包含声母方面的演化规律以及韵母方面的演化状况,在韵母方面,我们特别分析了明代初叶1375年的《洪武正韵》、明代中叶1442年的《韵略易通》以及明代末年1642年的《韵略汇通》,另外,我们也对1603年的《交泰韵》作了韵母系统的分析,透过这几部具有代表性的明代语料,我们可以清楚的看到,这三百年间汉语韵母的演化细节。希望能够对汉语语音史的建构提供一些参考。在引述资料方面,主要以台湾学者研究的成果作为主体,目的在透过本文能够一窥台湾在汉语音韵学方面的发展,台湾的声韵学研究在所有语言文字的研究当中发展的较好,相对上是个显学,所以我们也希望透过本文提供学术界一些参考。

 

Keywords 关键词

[Histroy of] Chinese phonology 汉语语音史 Evolution in Chinese phonetics [汉语]音韵演化 Modern Chinese phonology 近代[汉]语音 Phonology of the Ming period [dynasty] 明代语音

Abstract 摘要
Based on extensive materials obtained from fieldwork on Zhongyuan Mandarin, Jianghuai Mandarin, and the Gan dialects in recent years, this article examines dialectal contacts in Luanzhang dialect of Danfeng county, spoken in southern Shaanxi Province, and analyzes phonological strata of different historical origins.

本文以近年来出版的中原官话、江淮官话、赣语调查报告以及调查所得材料为基本语料,尝试运用历史层次分析法从方言接触的角度离析陕西丹凤峦庄声母韵母中有代表性的语音特征呈现出的不同来源的语音层次。

 

Keywords 关键词

Dialectal contact 方言接触 Phonological strata 语音层次 Stratum analysis 历史层次分析法 Sound change 语音演变

Abstract 摘要
Compared with the shang and qu tones, the yinping and yangping tones in the Jianghuai dialect maintain a consistent and uniform pattern of development. The yinping tone in most of the Jianghuai dialect is low-falling. The yangping of Hongchao and Tairu districts is high-rising but that of Huangxiao district is high-falling. Based on a close observation of the relevant dialects and on theories of language contact, this article draws the conclusion that the yinping and yangping tones in the Jianghuai dialect have different derivations. Yinping maintains the characteristics of old-time Jianghuai dialect while yangping either directly adopts the characteristics of surrounding dialects or has undergone changes caused by the influence of those dialects. Timing differences of devoicing of the initial consonants might be a key factor leading to the present situation of the yinping and yangping tones in the Jianghuai dialect.

与上声和去声相比,江淮官话的阴平和阳平显得非常整齐。阴平调多为低降调;阳平调,洪巢片和泰如片多为高升调,黄孝片则多为高降调。本文尝试从方言接触的角度对此进行解释,江淮官话的阴平和阳平来源不同,阴平调是承自本方言,阳平调则是直接对周边方言的借用或受周边方言影响而发生的变化。比较整齐的原因可能与浊塞音、浊塞擦音声母清化时平仄清化速度不同有关。

 

Keywords 关键词

The Jianghuai dialect 江淮官话 Yinping 阴平 Yangping 阳平 Dialect contact 方言接触

Abstract 摘要
The goals of this article are to demonstrate the tendency for high and low vowels to often converge to mid vowels in modern Mandarin and to suggest a reason for such changes. Much attention has been paid to vowel assimilation in modern Mandarin in Cheng (1973), Duanmu (2000, 2007), Lin (2007), and Eom (2012), among many others. The assimilation of non-high vowels, in fact, is the most dynamic and apparent phenomenon of modern Mandarin phonology, so it has been a focal topic of research. Unlike assimilation, mid vowel convergence has been comparatively neglected by linguists. Modern Mandarin vowels tend to converge to mid vowels. For instance, the low front vowel /ɑ/ in syllables such as yan and yuan is raised and changed to a mid vowel [ε] as in Yan Mian 严棉 ‘a personal name’ and yuanchuan 原泉 ‘the original spring.’ The high back vowel /u/ in ao 澳 ‘Australia’ and dong 东 ‘east’ tends to change to a mid back vowel [o]. Additional examples can be found in some words with the neutral tone. For instance, the vowel /ɑ/ of the neutral tone in the second syllables of xiaohua 笑话 ‘ joke,’ mianhua 棉花 ‘cotton’ and many other words can be pronounced as schwa or another mid vowel, such as [o] and [e]. This article concludes that convergence to mid vowels has a physiological cause. The pronunciation of mid vowels is easier compared to that of high or low vowels. Since the main cause of assimilation is also economy, this convergence can be said to share the same basic causal mechanism as assimilation.

本论文主要分析了现代汉语高元音和低元音向中元音收敛的趋势并讨论了出现这种变化的原因。郑锦全(Cheng1969,1973),端木三(Duanmu 2000/2007),林燕慧(Lin 2007),严翼相(Eom 2012)等很多学者对于现代汉语中的元音同化现象给予了很大的关注。事实上,作为现代汉语音韵学中的一个最突出的音变现象,非高元音的同化一直是一个学术研究的焦点。但除了同化现象以外,在现代汉语中,还存在着中元音收敛现象。比如,例(3) ‘严棉’和(5)‘原泉’中的音节yan和yuan 的前低元音/ɑ/都上升为中元音[ε]。例(8)中‘澳’ao和‘东’dong 的后高元音/u/变成后中元音[o]。在轻声音节中也同样可以找到类似的例子:比如,‘笑话’xiaohua、‘棉花’mianhua 等词的第二个音节的元音都变成了中央元音。以上例举的几个音节中的/ɑ/可以发成中央元音或者其他的中元音(比如:[o]或者[e])。这些 都是中元音收敛的现象。但与同化现象相比,这一音变现象一直都没有得到充分的研究。本论文就这一问题进行了分析研究并总结出了中元音收敛规则及图示。在其原因的探究上,本论文认为中元音收敛现象归因于心理因素。也就是说现代汉语话者在讲话中趋向于使用更加简便的发音。因为与高元音或者低元音相比,中元音要更加简便一些。因此,在现代汉语中,中元音收敛与同化现象相同,都是在语言经济性的要求下发生的音变现象。

 

Keywords 关键词

Modern Mandarin 近代汉语 Mid vowel 中元音 Assimilation 同化 Convergence Sound change 音变

Abstract 摘要
While “ma” 吗,”ma” 嘛,and “me” 么 are all used differently in Modern Mandarin today, only “me” 麽 is found in the six editions of Lao Qida and Piao Tongshi, in contexts where we might expect all three to occur. Although these Mandarin textbooks used in Korea during the Chosǒn Dynasty used a single form, “me” 麽, it presumably had different historical sources. This article attempts to present the different sources of “me” 麽 in Lao Qida and Piao Tongshi in order to clarify the origins of “ma” 吗,”ma” 嘛,and “me” 么.

现代汉语中的“吗”“嘛”“么”,在朝鲜时期的汉语课本《老乞大》、《朴通事》中,都写作“麼”。虽然字形相同,但是本文认为“吗”“嘛”与“么”的来源却不一致。结合“麼”在《老乞大》、《朴通事》各个版本中的用法和读音,本文对“吗”“嘛”“么”的来源进行了考察。

 

Keywords 关键词

Lao Qida 《老乞大》 Piao Tongshi 《朴通事》 ma 麼 ma 吗 ma 嘛 me 么

Abstract 摘要
Most of the monosyllabic negators in Southern Min dialects have maintained their usages from ancient Chinese. Some of them, however, have undergone unique semantic changes, such as shift to a different part of speech and grammaticalization depending on geographical distribution. Semantic cross-linking led to concatenations while used in context. The polysyllabic negators also reflect geographical characteristics. Overall, this article classifies the negators into three groups: Coastal Min, Inland Min, and Island Min types. This article attempts also to explain the motivations for the patterns of their semantic changes: language itself, subjective, and objective worlds.

闽南方言单音节否定词中除了沿袭古汉语否定词的用法之外,在历时的发展过程中,语义的演变有其独特的模式。转类过程中有虚化,虚化过程中又有转类的现象,并且形成了地域特征。语义交叉辐射,在应用的过程中形成连锁链条。合音否定词也体现了地域的特征性。总体来说,否定词的表征和用法方面,形成沿海闽语型、内陆型、海岛型分布。综合归纳其语义演变模式的动因——语言世界、主体世界和客体世界的因素。

 

Keywords 关键词

Southern Min dialects 闽南方言 Negator 否定词 Semantic change 语义演变 Change of grammatical category 转类 Grammaticalization 虚化 Linguistic factors 语言因素

Abstract 摘要
Based upon a socio-linguistic survey of the speakers’ awareness of frequent words in Beijing vernacular, this paper puts forward a model to dynamically measure lexical dissemination. In particular, through the algorithm of fitting for all parameters, it gives coefficients of the spread, frequency , and dying out of 177 everyday words of Beijing vernacular, and predicts their future.

本文使用基于笔者在2010年10月-2011年7月对居住在北京的人知晓和使用177个北京常用方言词语的情况做的调查得出的数据,建立城市方言词汇传播模型,并对模型中各项参数拟合求解,得出177个北京话常用方言词语的传播系数、使用系数和退化系数,并对其未来使用状况作出预测。

 

Keywords 关键词

Urban Dialect Lexical Spread [Model] 城市方言词汇传播模型 Special Words of Beijing Vernacular 北京话方言词语

Abstract 摘要
In this article, statistical and analytic methods are adopted to investigate 458 Chinese words created in 1994 and 497 created in 2010. Compared to the new words of 1994, those formed in 2010 exhibit six obvious characteristics: (1) There are more derived forms. (2) There are fewer abbreviations. (3) There are more homonym-based words. (4) There are fewer figurative nonce words. (5) There are more words with fresh and unusual meanings. (6) There are more words in a playful style. On the basis of these observations, some essential conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) There have been significant changes in the creation of new words between 1994 and 2010. (2) The changes are caused by speakers’ psychological pursuit of fresh and unusual meanings, manifested in a humorous or ironic style using word-formation patterns. The word-formation patterns are shown to consist of two layers: an internal layer and an external layer. The former involves the characteristics of the morphemes and morpheme combinations within a word, while the latter involves the patterns of relationship between a word and what it refers to. According to this model, the following three factors are decisive in the formation of a new word with a fresh and unusual meaning and in a humorous or ironic style: (1) The degree of freshness of the morphemes used, (2) the degree of creativity of morpheme combinations, and (3) the degree of creativity of the intended meaning and function of the new words.

本文对1994年的458个汉语新词语和2010年的497个汉语新词语进行了分类统计和对比分析,概括出2010年汉语新词语不同于1994年汉语新词语的六个特点:1.派生词明显增加。2.减缩词明显减少。3.谐音词明显增加。4.仿词修辞格的使用明显减少。5.含有新奇色彩的词语明显增加。6.含有嘲谑色彩的词语明显增加。在以上论述的基础上,本文得到如下结论:1.和1994年相比,2010年汉语新词语的构造特点发生了明显的变化。2.究其原因,出于人们造词时求新求谑的心理,并借助于相应的造词模式而达成这种变化。本文还初步论述了造词模式,认为它由内部构造层和外部构造层组成,前者反映词语所含语素的特点及语素搭配的特点,后者反映词语和它们所指对象之间的关联方式。根据这个造词模式,以下三个因素对词语的新颖性和嘲谑性的形成具有决定作用:1.所含语素的新鲜程度。2.语素之间搭配的新奇程度。3.词语整体表意上是否别出心裁。

 

Keywords 关键词

Chinese language 汉语 Neologisms of year 1994 1994年新词语 Neologisms of year 2010 2010年新词语 Word-formation patterns 造词模式

Abstract 摘要
This article discusses the phenomenon of hidden paradigmatic components caused by the tendency toward pragmatic simplicity, i.e. ellipsis, fragments, and seemingly complete sentences like “du baozhi” (read newspaper). It proposes that identification of such hidden components cannot be achieved by syntactic criteria alone. One can use various methods besides abbreviation to identify ellipsis and fragments, for example: analogy, relevant transformation, supplementation, quantitative balance, identification of the topic scope of a discourse statement chain, and the relationship between the follow-up sentence and topics. In the case of sentences like “kan baozhi,” it summarizes the event information reflected by the hidden components as belonging to one of three patterns: A1(A2 A3…)+B, A+B1(B2 B3…) and A1+B1(A2+B2, A3+B3…). These patterns guide the selection of linguistic forms of paradigmatic information.

本文讨论了语用趋简性带来的省略与残缺这种组合性成分隐匿现象以及貌似完全句的“读报纸”类聚合性成分信息隐匿现象。提出判别一个句子不能囿于狭隘的句法观,除了减缩法之外,多方类比、相关转换、添补实验、数量权衡、语篇陈述链的话题辖域、后续句与话题的关系等原理都能用来鉴别省略或残缺。对“看报纸”这种不易察觉的聚合性隐匿所反映的事件信息的关系,可以概括为三种模式:A1(A2A3…)+B,A+B1(B2B3…)和A1+B1(A2+B2、A3+B3…),在聚合信息的语形选择上遵循的是典型性原则。

 

Keywords 关键词

Syntagmatic [analysis] 组合[分析] Paradigmatic [analysis] 聚合[分析] Hidden components 隐匿[成分]

Abstract 摘要
An echo question is a special type of interrogative which fully or partially reiterates a non-interrogative declarative uttered by a preceding conversation partner. It has the pragmatic effect of expressing surprise, requesting confirmation, or making an indirect negation. With respect to linguistic form, echo questions exhibit two cross-linguistic characteristics: First, as a type of putative interrogative, they do not use the typical syntactic devices of question formation. Second, they must take the sentence final rising intonation typical of interrogative sentences. It is argued in this article that the phonological characteristic can be derived from the joint effect of its syntactic characteristics and a cross-structural and cross-linguistic principle, while its syntactic characteristic itself can be analyzed as the shortened form of a tag question, where what is deleted in the shortened form are exactly those syntactic devices for question formation. The reason for the shortening is that the speaker utters the question too quickly due to the unexpectedness of the preceding declarative.

回声问句以疑问句完全复述或者部分复述前一个说话人的非疑问陈述语句,以达到表示惊奇、要求证实或间接否定等语义语用效果。在语言形式上,回声问句有两大广泛存在于多种自然语言的突出特征:一是它虽为公认的疑问句式,却不能使用疑问句式的基本句法形式;二是一定要使用疑问句式典型的上升语调,而有其他很多类型的疑问句式并非一定要使用上升语调。本文认为在这两项特征中,其句法特征外加一个“虽非为回声问句所特设但却对其所适用的一条普遍原则”一起导致了其语音特征;而句法特征则是因为回声问句在本质上是附加问句的紧缩形式,且被紧缩掉的正好是体现疑问句法形式的那部分。紧缩的原因则是回声问句的使用者因意外惊奇而语气急促。

 

Keywords 关键词

Echo question 回声问句 Intonation 语调 Syntax 句法 Characteristics 特点  

Abstract 摘要
Incremental theme “V + yi ‘a/one’ + CL + N” sequences in Mandarin Chinese exhibit dual telicity in that sometimes they have a completion interpretation and other times a termination interpretation. This paper shows that in Mandarin Chinese, incremental theme V + yi ‘a/one’ + CL + N sequences describe multi-point closed scalar changes (Rappaport Hovav and Levin 2010, among others), an aspectual class which subsumes the traditional concept of accomplishments (Vendler 1957). Furthermore, in light of recent findings in a scalar analysis of English incremental theme argument NPs (Kennedy 2012), we show that the ambiguous aspectual interpretations of events with incremental theme in Mandarin Chinese can be consistently explained by the scalar features lexicalized in their argument NPs. Furthermore, we will show that the scalar analysis has more explanatory power in accommodating the different types of NPs and different types of events denoting incremental changes than the previous approaches. The results of this study shed important light on the analysis of lexical aspect in Mandarin Chinese.

汉语中表达客体量变的结构“动+一+量+名”可表达“完结”和“中止”两种意义。本文认为该类结构描述的是多点闭合层级变化 (multi-point closed scalar change) (e.g. Rappaport Hovav and Levin 2010等),该变化属于一种新的情状类型,且包含传统的完结类事件(accomplishments) (e.g. Vendler 1957)。此外,基于近年来学者对英语中客体量变名词短语的分析(Kennedy 2012),本文指出汉语中表达客体量变的动词短语的“完结”或“中止”意由该结构中论元名词短语的层级特征(scalar feature)决定。本文还指出,与前人研究相比,本文的层级分析不但能系统地解释客体量变,也能被应用到其他变量事件中(即位移量变和状态变化量变)。

 

Keywords 关键词

Accomplishment 完结事件 Argument NPs 论元名词短语 Incremental changes 客体量变 Multi-point scalar changes 多点闭合层级变化 Open-scale changes 开放层级变化 Dual telicity [双重性]

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